ICBM – ఇంటర్ కాంటినెంటల్ బాలిస్టిక్ క్షిపణి ముఖ్యంగా అణుబాంబుల ప్రయోగానికి వాడతారు. ఇవి గరిష్ఠంగా 2000 కిలోమీటర్ల ఎత్తులో ప్రయాణించగలిగినా సాధారణంగా 800 కిలోమీటర్ల ఎత్తులో ప్రయోగిస్తారు.
ఉదాహరణకు మన అగ్ని సాంకేతిక వివరాలు:
యుద్ధ విమానాలు సాధారణంగా 15 కిలోమీటర్ల ఎత్తులో ఎగురుతాయి. వాటి గరిష్ఠ ప్రయాణ ఎత్తు 20 కిలోమీటర్లుగా నిర్ణయించబడింది. ప్రయాణికుల విమానాలకు ఇది 14 కిలోమీటర్లు. ఉదాహరణకు రఫాల్ యుద్ధ విమానాల గరిష్ఠ ఎత్తు 15 కిలోమీటర్లు:
In the 1970s The Defense Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) started a project the Devil and the Valiant.
The project Devil was aimed to produce short-range Surface to air missiles.
The project Valiant was aimed to produce long-range Ballistic missiles. Both projects consider failures. Project Valiant terminated in 1974 and the project Devil ended in 1980.
India fails but not lose hope.
Then came IGMDP
Integrated Guided Missile Development Program was launched in 1983 to develop five missile systems in the country. This program was created under Abdul Kalam Sir.
This project was aimed to produce intermediate-range surface to surface missiles. Trishul, Akash, Nag, Prithvi, and Agni-1 was their missile names. Now India has Agni 5 and 6. Agni 6 range is 12,000 KM.
Nag Missile (“fire and forget concept” anti-tank missile)
Trishul Missile (Surface to air operational range 9 km)
Akash Missile (medium-range surface to air 30 km)
In the 1990s, the program was expanded to develop the long-range Agni missile, Sagarika missile (ballistic missile), Surya (the medium-range version of the Agniballastic missile) and Dhanush missile.
In 2008, the DRDO announced the successful completion of the program.
First, you need to understand what is Ballistic missile and Cruise missile.
When we think about missiles the image of that picture was Cruise missiles. The cruise missile is for the accurate target. For a particular point. The cruise missile has wings and ballistic missiles don’t have. So whenever you see wings that means this is the cruise missile.
The cruise missile holds fuel until it reaches the target.
The ballistic missile is big in size. It follows a ballistic trajectory, a cruise missile doesn’t. The ballistic missile fired into the air and once it’s run out of fuel goes down to the target. Just shown as pictures.
K missile Series
This is a missile that can be launched from underwater. The K family of missiles is a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). They are being developed to provide second-strike capabilities and thus the nuclear deterrence.
There are three variants.
K-15 has a 750 km range.
K-4 missile has two sub-variants, one with 3,500 km and the other is a 5,000 km range.
K-5 has a range of 6,000 km.
The K family of missiles is used with nuclear powered Arihant class submarines.
Now, we need to know about missiles speed. There are Subsonic, Supersonic, and Hypersonic. Speed of missile is measured by speed of sound.
The speed of sound is Mach 1 (1200km).
The one that travels less than the speed of sound is Subsonic that means below Mach 1. The one who travels more than the speed of sound is Supersonic (above Mach 1). Above Mach 5 is called Hypersonic.
BrahMos is a Supersonic and Hypersonic cruise missile is designed and developed by BrahMos Aerospace, a joint venture of India and Russia. The BrahMos name is formed from two rivers one is Brahmaputra of India and Moskva of Russia.
BrahMos 1 missile information
It is a very dangerous missile. It can fire from land, sea, sub-sea, and air. It is capable of carrying a warhead of 300 km even nuclear warhead. It can be launched from Ships, Land, and Submarines.
It has a top supersonic speed of Mach 3. It is a two-stage missile, the first one being solid and the second one Ramjet liquid propellant.
BrahMos 2 missile information
BrahMos 2 is a upgrade version. It is a Hypersonic cruise missile and it is the second of the BrahMos series. It is expected to have a range of 450 km and the speed is Mach 7 (nearly 8,600).
It is powered by a Scramjet engine instead of Ramjet. Ramjet is a liquid base engine and Scramjet is an airbreathing jet engine. The weight has reduced due to the scramjet engine, that’s why this missile has increased at a greater speed.
It is a long-range Subsonic missile. It is a low altitude missile. It can evade detection by Radars. The speed of Nirbhay missile is 700 km. It is also capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
In this missile a fire and forgets system which can not jammed by the enemy
• Agni 5 is the most accurate Inter Continental Ballistic Missile in the world with less than 10m CEP. It has a yield of 300 kT.
•BrahMos is the fastest cruise missile in the world.
• Akash air defence missile is one of the cheapest and most effective missiles in its category.
• BrahMos missile has sea skimming capability and can fly as low as 3 metres from water surface.This makes it invisible to some of the air defence systems.
• During 1971 war, a Styx missile was used by India to destroy Pakistans Kemari oil storage .It was the first time when a missile purely developed for an anti-ship role was used for land attack purpose.
• Operation Trident saw the first use of anti-ship missiles in South east Asia region.
• BrahMos is portmanteau of Brahmaputra river of India and Moskva river of Russia.
• Prithvi and Akash air defence missiles made India fourth nation in the world to have developed ballistic missile defence system after USA,Russia and Israel.
•Nag anti-tank missile is the only missile in the world to have full fibre glass body .
•K 15 missile along with Arihant class submarine completed Indias nuclear triad.
• Indias K series of submarine launched ballistic missiles is named after Sir APJ Abdul Kalam who was known as “missile man of India”.
• PDV mk2 used in Indias mission Shakti made India fourth nation in the world to have ability to shoot down satellites after USA,Russia and China.
Well, First we have to understand the difference between ballistic missile and guided missile . Ballistic missiles are missile which follows a particular trajectory and it is launched to the higher layer of earth atmosphere in the initial stage and the later part is not much powered by fuel as it hit the target with the help of gravity .
Ballistic missiles are very difficult to intercept as it travels at high speed approximately 30 times more than the speed of the sound.
And ballistic missiles travel mostly in predefined trajectory and it cannot alter it’s trajectory once launched. And ballistic missiles are used for long target and mostly used for intercontinental missions , Agni 5 is an intercontinental ballistic missile.
Now coming to guided missiles, these are operated by the flight mechanism and it travels by constant speed, it also powered by a scramjet engine or cryogenic engine to power the missile for movement.
This missile system got complex electronic guided part which can alter the direction and change the trajectory even after launching ,these are high precision missile which can take down target accurately and there are fire and forget type which track down the object even it is moving in different direction, but unlike ballistic missiles ,the speed of the missile is much low and is between mach 2 to 4 or 6 to 7 times the speed of the sound.
So both missile systems are different for different objectives. S-400 system is an anti aircraft and anti missile system ,which is used to take down an incoming air threat. This is can intercept incoming missiles or aircraft successfully and is designed for that particular objective .
Whereas ballistic missiles are used to destroy a ground target which is predefined . It is not used to intercept any missiles or aircrafts. So ballistic missiles cannot be used against anti aircraft or missile.
So Agni missile cannot be used against intercepting the S400 system , but India has many other anti missile defense system like , Indian akash system , Israeli barrack system, Brahms air defence system and American IAMD and SMDC and the future induction of S400 system.
Ballistic missiles are very difficult to intercept by any counter missiles, no system in the world claim complete supremacy over ballistic threat. Ballistic missiles travel more than 30 times the speed of the sound, whereas missile systems like S-400 and any other counterparts can travel maximum 3 to 6 times the speed of sound . Besides ,the present ballistic missiles are based on MRV ( multiple reentry vehicle ) technology ,where a single ballistic missile can carry multiple warhead and can split and hit multiple target . So intercepting such ballistic missile is merely impossible.