భూవాతావరణ పొరలు, వాటి ఎత్తు:
ICBM – ఇంటర్ కాంటినెంటల్ బాలిస్టిక్ క్షిపణి ముఖ్యంగా అణుబాంబుల ప్రయోగానికి వాడతారు. ఇవి గరిష్ఠంగా 2000 కిలోమీటర్ల ఎత్తులో ప్రయాణించగలిగినా సాధారణంగా 800 కిలోమీటర్ల ఎత్తులో ప్రయోగిస్తారు.
ఉదాహరణకు మన అగ్ని సాంకేతిక వివరాలు:
యుద్ధ విమానాలు సాధారణంగా 15 కిలోమీటర్ల ఎత్తులో ఎగురుతాయి. వాటి గరిష్ఠ ప్రయాణ ఎత్తు 20 కిలోమీటర్లుగా నిర్ణయించబడింది. ప్రయాణికుల విమానాలకు ఇది 14 కిలోమీటర్లు. ఉదాహరణకు రఫాల్ యుద్ధ విమానాల గరిష్ఠ ఎత్తు 15 కిలోమీటర్లు:
సాధారణమైన ఓడలు తాను వెళ్ళే దిశ మార్చుకోవడానికి చాలా కష్టం అవుతుంది. దాని దిశ మార్చుకోవడానికి కనీసం 90 నిమిషాల నుంచి అది ఎంత పెద్దది అన్నదాన్ని బట్టి చాలా సమయం తీసుకుంటుంది. మెల్లిగా ఇంజన్లు మార్చుకున్న తిప్పుకోవాలి. బైక్ తిప్పినట్టు టక్కున తిప్పలేరు, ఒక సర్కిల్లా తిరగాలి. ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ క్యారియర్ షిప్లో యుద్ధ విమానాలు ఉంటాయి. ఆ యుద్ధ విమానాలను లాంచ్ చేసి, ఆకాశంలో ఎలాగైనా తిప్పి శత్రువుల ఓడల మీద దాడులు చేయగలవు. ముందు చెప్పుకున్నట్టు ఓడలు అన్నవి ఆ యుద్ధ విమానాల దాడి నుంచి తప్పించుకోవడానికి తప్పుకోవడమో, దారి తిప్పుకోవడమో చాలా కష్టం. కాబట్టి, ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ క్యారియర్లు అన్నవి ఒక సముద్రం మొత్తాన్ని సంరక్షించగలవు. ఐతే, మరో సమస్య ఏమిటంటే ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ క్యారియర్ అయిన ఓడ కూడా ఒక ఓడే కదా. దానికి ఇతర నౌకలకు ఉండే వల్నరబిలిటీ తిప్పుకోలేకపోవడం ఉంటాయి. తద్వారా ఎదుట ఒక మిస్సైల్ షిప్ వచ్చి ఎలాగోలా ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ ఎటాక్ నుంచి తనను తాను కాపాడుకుని క్యారియర్ షిప్ మీద దాడి చేస్తే అంతటి ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ క్యారియర్ ఓడ కూడా చటుక్కున నాశనమైపోతుంది. దాని వల్ల ఈ పవర్ఫుల్ ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ క్యారియర్ షిప్ని కాపాడడానికి చుట్టూ చాలా ఎస్కార్ట్ ఓడలు ఉంటాయి. సర్వీస్ షిప్లు, ప్రొటెక్షన్ షిప్లు – ఇలా చాలానే ఒక ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ క్యారియర్ షిప్ చుట్టూ ఎప్పుడూ ఉంటాయి.
ఇలా ఒక్క ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ క్యారియర్ ఓడ విశాఖపట్టణం దగ్గర ఉంటే ఇటు బంగ్లాదేశ్ నుంచి అటు శ్రీలంక వరకూ బంగాళాఖాతం మొత్తాన్నీ మన కోసం సంరక్షించగలదు. ఆ ఒక్క ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ క్యారియర్ ఓడ ఉండగా ఆ మూల నుంచి ఈ మూల దాకా ఏ ఒక్క శత్రు నౌకా వెళ్ళలేవు. ఎందుకంటే – సముద్రంలో మనకు ఒక డిఫెన్స్ ఎయిర్పోర్టు ఉన్నట్టే కదా. ఫైటర్ జెట్లు చాలా చిన్నవిగా ఉంటాయి, చాలా వేగంగా ప్రయాణించగలుగుతాయి. బంగాళాఖాతం మధ్యలో ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ క్యారియర్ని నిలబెట్టి అక్కడ నుంచి ఫైటర్ జెట్లను పంపుతూ హిందూ మహా సముద్రం నుంచి బంగాళాఖాతంలోకి రాబోతున్న శత్రు నౌకలను అడ్డుకోవచ్చు. అంత పవర్ఫుల్.
ముందే చెప్పినట్టు సముద్రంలోకి వెళ్ళి ఫుల్ యాక్టివ్గా ఉన్న సమయంలో ఫ్యుయెల్, మెయింటైనెన్స్ వంటి అన్ని ఖర్చులూ కలిపి చూస్తే రెండు కోట్ల రూపాయలు అవసరం, దాన్ని నిర్వహించడానికి ఐదువేల మంది వరకూ పనిచేస్తారు. ఇలాంటిది అసలు కమిషన్ చేసి, తయారుచేయించడానికి ఎంత ఖర్చు అవుతుందో ఊహించుకోండి.
మొత్తంగా చెప్పేది ఏంటంటే – దాన్ని నిర్వహించడం చాలా ఖర్చుతో కూడిన పని, దాన్ని తయారుచేయడానికి సంవత్సరాలకు సంవత్సరాలు పడుతుంది, ఎంతో ఖర్చు అవుతుంది, అలానే ఆ ఒక్క ఓడ ఒక సముద్రం మొత్తాన్ని మనకోసం ప్రొటెక్ట్ చేసేయగలదు. ఇవన్నీ కలిపి చూస్తే మనకు ఒక్క ఎయిర్క్రాఫ్ట్ క్యారియర్ ఉన్నా కూడా ఎంత అడ్వాంటేజ్ అన్నది తెలుస్తుంది.
- fighter aircraft(Multirole)
F16 fighting falcon Block52
2. Attack helicopter
3. Transport Helicopter
4. Tactical Air lifter/ transport
5. Aerial Tanker
Saab 2000 Erieye
7. UAV (Attack)
8. UAV (Reconnaissance)
9. Electronic Warfare
dassault falcon 20
10. fighter aircraft(Attack)
Dassault Mirage V
- Fighter Aircraft(Air Force Multirole)
2.Fighter Aircraft(Navy Multirole)
3.Attack helicopter (Army and airforce)
4. transport helicopter
5. Strategic airlifter
Ilyushin Il78 MKI
7. Tactical Airlifter
C-130J Super Hercules
8. Heavy lift helicopter
9. AWACS (Air force fixed wing)
And A-50EI (Il-76)
10. AWACS (NAVY rotary wing)
Kamov ka 31
11. reconnaissance (ELINT)
global 5000 (used under R&AW)
12. electronic warfare
gulfstream III (used under R&AW)
13. Anti submarine warfare(fixed wing)
14.Anti submarine warfare(rotary wing)
Kamov Ka 27
15. UAV (Attack)
17. Fighter aircraft (Ground attack)
18. Sexiest aircraft of all time
This is Chinese Chengdu J-20, a Fifth Generation Aircraft. And China has 50 of them, while India did not have any.
This is Chinese Nuclear powered Ballistic Missile Submarine which can carry SLBM ( Submarine Launch Ballistic Missile ). China has 3 of them, while India has none.
Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean and Indian subcontinent is incredible. Even the dearest friends like Nepal and Maldives are being proselytized by the Economic prowess of China.
This map shows the coverage area of Chinese Ballistic Missiles.
China is called as :
- World’s largest military force.
- 2nd largest defese budget in World.
- Fastest modernising military in the world.
- Superpower, able to project Globally.
Annual Military budget is $ 177 billion with about 2 million personnel and 5 hundres thousand reserve personnel.
Five division of Forces :
- Ground Force.
- Air Force.
- Strategic supoort force.
- Rocket Force.
Weaponary comparison with India :
Main Battle Tanks
- India – 2000+ T-90S
- China – 8000+
- India – 250 Arjun
- China – 1200+
- India – 205 Su 30 MKI, 66 Mig 29, 49 Mirage 2000. Apart from these India have 6 C-130j and 10 C-17 Globemaster.
- China – 50 Fifth Generation fighter Chengdu J-20, 75 Su-27, 97 Su-30MKK, 24 Su-35. Apart from this China has over 2100 Aircrafts.
- India – 2 Aircraft carriers, 1 Amphibious transport docks, 10 destroyers, 14 frigates, 24 corvettes.
- China – 3 Aircraft carrier with over 537 ships and 594 Aircrafts.
- India – Only 1 nuclear attack submarine ( not capable of launching Nuclear SLBM ) and 14 conventional Submarines.
- China – 3+ Nuclear Ballistic Missile Submarines ( capable of launching SLBM ), 3 Nuclear Attack Submarines and 4 conventional submarine.
There are people who are enjoying the speculation of War. But I worry of the destruction on Life and Economy brought upon by the Wars. A little Skirmish recently killed 20+ soldiers of India.
In the 1970s The Defense Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) started a project the Devil and the Valiant.
The project Devil was aimed to produce short-range Surface to air missiles.
The project Valiant was aimed to produce long-range Ballistic missiles. Both projects consider failures. Project Valiant terminated in 1974 and the project Devil ended in 1980.
India fails but not lose hope.
Then came IGMDP
Integrated Guided Missile Development Program was launched in 1983 to develop five missile systems in the country. This program was created under Abdul Kalam Sir.
This project was aimed to produce intermediate-range surface to surface missiles. Trishul, Akash, Nag, Prithvi, and Agni-1 was their missile names. Now India has Agni 5 and 6. Agni 6 range is 12,000 KM.
Nag Missile (“fire and forget concept” anti-tank missile)
Trishul Missile (Surface to air operational range 9 km)
Akash Missile (medium-range surface to air 30 km)
In the 1990s, the program was expanded to develop the long-range Agni missile, Sagarika missile (ballistic missile), Surya (the medium-range version of the Agniballastic missile) and Dhanush missile.
In 2008, the DRDO announced the successful completion of the program.
First, you need to understand what is Ballistic missile and Cruise missile.
When we think about missiles the image of that picture was Cruise missiles. The cruise missile is for the accurate target. For a particular point. The cruise missile has wings and ballistic missiles don’t have. So whenever you see wings that means this is the cruise missile.
The cruise missile holds fuel until it reaches the target.
The ballistic missile is big in size. It follows a ballistic trajectory, a cruise missile doesn’t. The ballistic missile fired into the air and once it’s run out of fuel goes down to the target. Just shown as pictures.
K missile Series
This is a missile that can be launched from underwater. The K family of missiles is a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). They are being developed to provide second-strike capabilities and thus the nuclear deterrence.
There are three variants.
K-15 has a 750 km range.
K-4 missile has two sub-variants, one with 3,500 km and the other is a 5,000 km range.
K-5 has a range of 6,000 km.
The K family of missiles is used with nuclear powered Arihant class submarines.
Now, we need to know about missiles speed. There are Subsonic, Supersonic, and Hypersonic. Speed of missile is measured by speed of sound.
The speed of sound is Mach 1 (1200km).
The one that travels less than the speed of sound is Subsonic that means below Mach 1. The one who travels more than the speed of sound is Supersonic (above Mach 1). Above Mach 5 is called Hypersonic.
BrahMos is a Supersonic and Hypersonic cruise missile is designed and developed by BrahMos Aerospace, a joint venture of India and Russia. The BrahMos name is formed from two rivers one is Brahmaputra of India and Moskva of Russia.
BrahMos 1 missile information
It is a very dangerous missile. It can fire from land, sea, sub-sea, and air. It is capable of carrying a warhead of 300 km even nuclear warhead. It can be launched from Ships, Land, and Submarines.
It has a top supersonic speed of Mach 3. It is a two-stage missile, the first one being solid and the second one Ramjet liquid propellant.
BrahMos 2 missile information
BrahMos 2 is a upgrade version. It is a Hypersonic cruise missile and it is the second of the BrahMos series. It is expected to have a range of 450 km and the speed is Mach 7 (nearly 8,600).
It is powered by a Scramjet engine instead of Ramjet. Ramjet is a liquid base engine and Scramjet is an airbreathing jet engine. The weight has reduced due to the scramjet engine, that’s why this missile has increased at a greater speed.
It is a long-range Subsonic missile. It is a low altitude missile. It can evade detection by Radars. The speed of Nirbhay missile is 700 km. It is also capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
In this missile a fire and forgets system which can not jammed by the enemy
At least 40 CRPF personnel were killed when a convoy in which they were travelling was attacked by a Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) suicide bomber, who rammed his explosives-laden vehicle into one of the convoy’s buses near Awantipora on the Srinagar-Jammu highway. The mortal remains of CRPF jawans were laid to rest in their hometowns.
Succumbing to intense international pressure to check on various militant groups operating from its soil, the Pakistan government took over the administrative control of the headquarters of JeM.
By, Feb 23 2019, the Central Government took the first step in making a move on the enemy and rushed additional forces of about 10,000 central armed police force personnel and “urgently deployed” them to further fortify the Kashmir Valley amid apprehensions of reaction from Pakistan to any “indirect and direct actions” taken by the government in the wake of the Pulwama attack.
The IAF’s mission to bomb the terrorist hideout in Balakot, Pakistan, was given the codename ‘Operation Bandar’. It was a rare operation in which the IAF crossed the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir and dropped bombs on targets in Pakistani territory. Balakot is a small town located in Pakistan’s Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.
The operation was carried out by Mirage-2000 fighter jets, which unleashed guided SPICE 2000 smart bombs on the camp, based 70 km inside the Line of Control (LoC), in the Pakistani province. The ground intelligence gathered and provided by the R&AW to the IAF regarding this mission and the IAF’s own Intelligence wing supplemented the data. The IAF had clarity regarding the target coordinates and their size as they applied their ISR platforms (Intelligence, Surviellance and Target acquisition).
The IAF had meticulously planned the route of the Mirage-2000 based from Gwalior to it’s target area, such that nothing could be seen suspicious either on our side or from the Pakistani side. The IAF strategists were well aware of only a 12 minute window for the Mirage 2000 to stay undetected from the Pakistani radar’s and also employed the CAP’s (Combat Air Patrol) as a diversionary tactic to fool the Pakis.
The IAF used Mirage-2000 as this aircraft has an excellent close to surface flying capability and unique electronic counter-measures to fool ground enemy radars . The Mirage-2000 were armed with Israeli-made Spice bombs (there was also the option of Crystal Maze), now of all the data related to the Spice bombs in public domain there is one excellent detail regarding how it impacts.
SPICE 2000 is not a bomb, but a guidance kit attached to a bomb, the bomb may be a regular impact blasting or a bunker buster type. The bomb may weight 1000 pounds but that does not mean it carries a explosive load of a thousand pound. It can carry a much smaller explosive load of around 400–500 pounds or even 200 pounds. Depending upon the type purchased. If India’s defence procurement was anything to go by, the SPICE units were likelier to be all-up rounds, where the bomb is already configured and attached to the guidance kit at the time of purchase. However, there is no good data related to the type of bomb used.
Remember, the motive of the Indian attack on the Balakot JeM camp was to eliminate the terrorist and their trainers and not cause wide-scale damage. The Spice 2000 bomb was purposely used in this case. Hence, depending on impact required on the target (for example, fragmentation) the explosive filling in the bomb could be even less. So there is no exact rule that a 2000-lb class bomb will wipe out half a hillside.
The Pakis showed a lot of uprooted trees and claimed the Indians destructed a small part of the jungle and were unable to hit anything. Then just why on earth did they launch a retaliatory attack in broad daylight and risk being pulled into an all out war?
There are still extremely few and concrete photographic evidence available in the public domain regardng this. But there is intelligence and investigative reports related to the success of this attack out . One interesting case is of Italian journalist Francesca Marino who claimed that the air strikes conducted by India in Pakistan’s Balakot killed anywhere between “130 and 170” Jaish-e-Mohammed “cadre”.
The Balakot strike reflected India’s approach against the employment of terrorism as a low-cost option against India. It also indicated that terrorists, terrorist infrastructure and terrorist training facilities in areas beyond LoC and International Border when employed against India, will no longer be safe haven, the attack on Balakot will continue to reiterate India’s intent to employ the most appropriate resources for the intended impact.
India has joined the list of countries along with the United States and Israel who can strike in enemy territory and avenge the death of its soldiers. It sent out a signal to adversaries that India’s response to provocation will no longer be ‘soft’ and only diplomatic.
“Rifle is the first and last friend of a soldier”
- A weapon plays a crucial role in a soldier’s life. Weapons have changed their face from the era of ancient history to the current modernized and remotely operated weapons and a powerful weapon adds more muscles to a soldier. Indian Armed Forces are using many weapons, from big and long range to small and short range for a face to face fight.
- First of all, let’s clear the meaning of assault rifles. Assault rifles are the rifles, which hand held and easy to carry and are selective fire modes. Selective firearms are those in which the operator has options of firing as per situation. Like safe mode (where no firing can be done), Semi-automatic mode (where the gun automatically prepares itself for next fire or we can call it as self-loading) and automatic (when a single trigger can fire continuously). The mode is up to the soldier who decides its use as per the circumstances.
- Now here we will be discussing the assault rifles used by Indian Armed Forces. Indian Armed Forces consist of three major parts: Army, Navy and Air Force. As most of the part of the ground and face to face fight is done by the Indian army, most of the assault rifles are used by them as compared to the navy and Air Force.
- INSAS (an abbreviation of Indian Small Arms System) is a family of infantry arms consisting of an assault rifle and a light machine gun (LMG). This is the mostly used assault rifle in Indian Armed Forces and was originated in India.
- It also has a light machine gun variant. It has its basic design similar to AKM but has some points of difference too.
- This rifle is being used by Nepal, Bhutan and Oman military. But some issues of jamming, cracking ofthe magazine and semi-automatic mode were scars on it. But its variants have eradicated these drawbacks.
Multi calibre individual weapon system (MCIWS) –
- It is also an indigenously developed rifle by India which is expected to replace the mostly used INSAS assault rifle. It has got some special feature that deserves appreciation and its induction into the army will improve the fighting skills of soldiers.
- This Assault rifle is used in Indian Armed Forces, which has a basic design as that of AK-47 rifles. AKM is a modernized form of famous AK-47. It has a firing rate of 600 rounds per minute and comes with semi-automatic and fully automatic modes. Named as AvtomatKalashnikova, AK series is automatic rifles that were found a hit among soldiers after its invention.
- Apart from AKM, Indian Armed Forces uses AK 103 from AK family. AK 103 is also a variant of AK 47 additionally having side folding stock. It is also used by special forces of Indian Navy i.e. MARCOS.
T91 assault rifle –
- It is a Taiwan made rifle and is used by Special Forces of Indian Army and Garud of Indian air force. The rifle has got firing speed of about 800 rounds per minute. This rifle is based on T86 assault rifle with features of M16 and AR-18 rifles. It has 4 firing modes i.e. safe mode, semi-automatic mode (1 bust), 3 burst mode and fully automatic mode.
M4 Carbine –
- This US made rifle is in the list of rifles used by Special Forces of Indian Armed Forces. This rifle is a developed version of the M16A2 rifle having short length and light weight. And is used by US forces as a replacement of M16. It also supports mounting of the M203 grenade launcher. It is also appreciated for its capability to support many accessories.
IMI Tavor TAR-21 –
- This rifle is also used by Special Forces of Indian Armed Forces. This Israeli made rifle having selective firing system (semi and fully automatic modes). The rifle’s birth was aimed to build a reliable and durable rifle, which needs low maintenance. This makes it step ahead of carbine rifles.
APS amphibian rifle –
- The APS amphibian/underwater rifle is used by MARCOS by Indian navy. This underwater assault rifle originated in the Soviet Union and has firing speed of 600 rounds per minute. The effective firing range of this rifle decreases with an increase in depth. It has different shaped bullets and has good range and accuracy as compared to ordinary bullets.
FN F2000 –
- This is an Assault rifle by Belgium and used by a Special Protection Group of India. The rifle can fire at a swift speed of 850 rounds per minute. The gun is fully automatic with NATO box magazines and is currently used by many countries.
SG 551 –
- It is the assault rifle made in Switzerland and exclusively used by National security guards, which has a major part of the Indian army. It is based on SG550 and has shorter length than SG 551 with firing speed of about 650 rounds per minute. The rifle is being used by France, Canada Brazil, Germany and many other nations.
They are six-inch high rails called scuppers that are located around most of the carrier’s deck edge. However since space on a flight deck is very limited, oftentimes part of an aircraft and/or its stores will necessarily hang over the deck edge when parked, as seen in the below photo. Any higher railing would interfere with this.
Furthermore as Barry Hampe correctly explains, there is really no need for railings since aircraft are tied down by multiple chains to the flight deck, or under close control while moving. And if an aircraft decides to go over and off the deck, a railing would not stop it in most cases. The scuppers are more for smaller equipment or flight deck personnel, along with nets on the carrier’s side to catch someone blown overboard.
Flight deck edge scupper and nets. The metal chute between the nets is actually for jettisoning ordnance overboard.
NDA, National Defence Academy, is the first aim of every young Armed Forces aspirant. Several Armed Forces aspirants steps toward NDA exam to join the academy and become a part of any of the three services of the Indian Armed Forces.
The academy is different from other defence academies of the nation. The academy is known for providing some of the best officers in the Indian Armed Forces and still continuing the legacy by grooming and training the officers with new war techniques and enhanced leadership and fighting skills. Some facts that make it different and elite are as follows.
12 Amazing Facts about NDA That Every NDA Aspirant Must Know
- NDA is the first military academy that trains officers for the Army, Navy and Air Force.
- The main building of the NDA is called Sudan Block. It was constructed from the donation provided by Sudan in recognition of the sacrifice. The Indian soldiers, who fought for Sudan in World War II are remembered in this occasion.
- The academy is situated in Khadagwasla because it has lakes, hilly areas and operational airbase for the training the young cadets.
- The first batch of 190 cadets started their training at NDA on 11 January 1949.
- The aim of establishing NDA was to check whether the candidates from diverse areas come and join the forces.
- A common dress code “Khaki” has been made compulsory at NDA to keep the sense of equality among the cadets.
- The NDA has given more than 27 Chiefs to the Armed Forces and several famous personalities like Major Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore, Wing Commander Rakesh Sharma, the first Indian, who went into space.
- The cadets are given the degrees in Bachelor of Arts or Science after completion of their training.
- The NDA has 18 squadrons, which are divided into 5 battalions.
- “The hut of remembrance” is the hut constructed by the cadets to remember the sacrifice of the soldiers.
- The motto of NDA was changed from “Service before Self” to “Seva Parmo Dharma” in 1951. The current symbol of NDA was adopted in 1948 replacing the old symbol having quill pen, sword, eagle and an anchor.
- In NDA, cadets from more than 28 other nations are trained with Indian cadets.
Note:- NDA is the academy that is seen as the first gate to enter the defence forces by many Armed Forces aspirants. All 10+2 appearing and passed candidates, with spark in their soul to serve the nation, step ahead for the NDA examination. The above facts make the academy different and first choice of all young Armed Forces aspirants. The academy is a milestone in itself and acts as the backbone of the Armed Forces. NDA passes 2 batches every year, giving them chance to serve the nation and continues to give best officers to the Armed Forces.
13 Photos Showing The Life Of NDA Cadets At National Defence Academy
In 2013, I traveled to NDA to realise the portraits of cadets from one of the most important military academies in the post-colonial world.” Below you find the amazing pictures of NDA cadets getting trained at National Defence Academy, Khadagwasla.
NDA Cadets At National Defence Academy
DRDO’s Anti-drone system
First of a kind security deployment, Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) developed anti-drone system which was deployed to guard the Red Fort during Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Independence Day speech in the national capital.
What it can do?
- This indigenously-developed system is capable of detecting and jamming micro drones up to 3 kilometers away and it uses laser to bring down a target upto 1 to 2.5 kilometers depending on wattage of laser weapon.
- The counter drone system has capabilities to both detect and destroy drones in air.
- DRDO system can detect and identify drone threats at a moment’s instance and terminate them by damaging electronics of drones through laser-based Directed Energy Weapon.
- It carried two main systems to take out potential targets: a Jammer capable of breaking a drone’s command and control link to make it unresponsive and a Direct Energy Weapon that could fire an invisible beam of laser to fry its electronics mid-air.
- The range of laser depends on the wattage of DEW being used, however the power of the system deployed at Red Fort is not disclosed yet.
- This laser-equipped anti-drone system could be used to counter rogue UAV activity in northern and western parts of India.
- Notably, laser weapons are seen as the latest advancement in military tech, something that could neutralize an increasing number of potential threats, including UAVs, armed boats, and adversary intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems.
- The DRDO counter drone system was first deployed to provide security cover to the Republic Day Parade this year which was attended by Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro and Prime Minister Narendra Modi,
- The system was also deployed in Ahmedabad for the Modi-Trump roadshow where they were tasked to thwart any aerial threat from drones.
As per information recorded in public domain as of today, Indian Naval Air arm has about 270 aircraft of which 45 are combat jets. These 45 fighter jets are operated by the following two squadrons based in INS Hansa, Goa.
- INAS 300, The White Tigers
- INAS 303, The Black Panthers
The jet we are talking about is the naval variant of the ubiquitous Fulcrum, the MiG-29K (single seater) & MiG-29KUB (twin seat trainer).
This was commissioned in the Navy in 2013 & is a true swing role aircraft which carries enough punch to undertake Air Dominance and Power Projection missions simultaneously. It takes Indian naval aviation from a defensive stature to one of dominance.
Though you can read most of the specs on Wikipedia (refer footnotes section), few major characteristics of this aircraft is that the MiG-29 “K” is a highly advanced variant of the widely respected MiG-29. It has a multi-function radar having a detection range of 120 km for a fighter sized target & 300 km for ships. It also an auto-throttle system which enhances it’s landing accuracy on the aircraft carrier.
The airframe and undercarriage are reinforced to withstand the stress experienced upon carrier landings. Folding wings, an arrestor hook, and catapult attachments were added for carrier operations. Engines now produce 7% more thrust & the internal fuel capacity is increased from 3.3 ton to 4.5 ton giving it a radius of action of up to 850 km.
India currently has 11 American C-17 Globemaster III cargo jets and 11 C-130J30 Hercules turboprops. They join India’s fleet of approximately 14 Russian IL-76 Candid cargo jets and 100+ Russian/Ukrainian AN-32 Cline turboprops.
Finally, HAL license built 89 British HS-748 turboprops, and some 57 still serve in the IAF, rounding out India’s transport fleets.
So India has quite a large fleet of over 193 medium to large jets and turboprops from the USSR/Russia, US, and UK. India’s transport fleets serve a variety of purposes in the tactical and strategic domains. Below are some examples of IAF use.
The airlift fleets maintain logistic links to far flung Indian bases, some of which may be more that 1000 miles apart, and located at high altitudes and inhospitable terrain. The recently activated Daulat Beg Oldi is one such example, as it is in a remote area, at high altitude, and in harsh, cold terrain. This base helps India keep an all weather eye on Chinese PLAN and PLAAF activities. India’s Special Forces (Spec Ops) are heavily utilizing the C-130J30’s, giving them power projection capabilities and reliable operations that they did not previously possess. Just the enhanced ability to surge highly trained paratroops to threatened areas helps to preserve the peace as likely opponents know that India could rapidly envelop and outflank their forces from the air, so operations that were marginally plausible before are now off the table. So India benefits strategically from the deterrence effect of the airlifters.
The IL-76 Candids serve as heavy transports and as platforms for India’s 7 IL-78 Midas tankers and 3 A-50 AWACS. The IAF has conducted missions with the Candids all the way to the US, during bilateral exercises. This ability to perform intercontinental exercises with distant partners greatly aids the IAF in their professionalism and bridge-building missions, and serves to cement strategic relations. India plans to acquire more Il-76 based AWACS, and has left some room for additional IL-78 Midas tanker purchases as well. The HS-748 fleet is old but still serve a useful function as a pressurized passenger transport and as multi-engine and perhaps navigation trainers. India has a long running program to replace the HS-748’s with the Airbus C-295’s. Time will tell if this comes to fruition.
The newest heavylift arrivals are the 11 C-17 Globemasters. These aircraft have established a sterling reputation and offer the IAF its largest payload capabilities, with a lift capacity of 86 tons, enabling the carriage of the heaviest main battle tanks and similar armored fighting vehicles. The IAF has put them to good use, and they have performed many out of area missions and disaster relief missions already. Originally the IAF wanted 15 of the giant airlifters, but had to stagger purchases as funds were not available to buy them all at once. By the time funds came in the IAF could only buy 11. Even so they are currently the largest operator of the type after the USAF.
So India enjoys a great many benefits, both civil and military, from having a large airlift capability. India’s Boeing C-17 Globemaster fleet, with almost a thousand tons of cargo lifting capacity and intercontinental range, forms a key part of that capability.
INS Vishal, also known as Indigenous Aircraft Carrier 2, is a planned aircraft carrier to be built by Cochin Shipyard Limited for the Indian Navy.
> It is intended to be the second aircraft carrier to be built in India after INS Vikrant.
> INS Vishal was conceived as a 65,000 tonne aircraft carrier, embarking 55 aircraft and costing Rs 60,000 crore. After the MoD objected to the cost, the navy downsized the proposal to a 50,000-tonne carrier costing about Rs 50,000 crore.
> At an estimated $5 billion, the fully equipped INS Vishal may be most expensive piece of machinery in the arsenal of India, which wants to match the pace at which China is developing its aircraft carriers. The final cost will also depend on the hardware installed.
> In India’s neighbourhood, Pakistan and Sri Lanka don’t possess aircraft carriers. China, which already has the 40,000-tonne CNS Liaoning, is developing a 50,000-tonne aircraft carrier. It plans to develop two more.
> An aircraft carrier, complete with fighter squadrons called Carrier Battle Groups (CBG), gives a navy strategic depth in the oceans.
> A CBG can control around 200,000 square nautical miles and can moving more than 600 nautical miles a day. The distance between Chennai and Colombo by the sea is 401 nautical miles.
> The INS Vishal will be the first non-Western aircraft carrier equipped with the complex CATOBAR launch capability.
> CATOBAR aircraft launch systems put less strain on the airframe of planes during takeoff reducing maintenance cost in the long run and also allows carrier-based aircraft to carry a heavier weapons payload. Furthermore, CATOBAR launch systems increase the sortie rates of carrier air wings by allowing a faster landing and takeoff rate.
> The Indian Navy’s preference for the CATOBAR aircraft launch system indicates that the new warship will in all likelihood not carry MiG-29K Fulcrum fighter jets, the current mainstay of India’s naval combat aviation.
> Navy is planning to put rafael and LCA Tejas on INS Vishal.
1. Indian Navy is the fourth most powerful navy in the world.
Aircraft Carriers:1 (INS Vikramaditya) ; 1 more is in construction phase.
2. There are 79,083 active service personnel presently in the Navy.
3. Indian Naval Academy (INA) situated at Ezhimala Kerela is the largest of its kind in Asia
4. Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosale is considered as the Father of Indian Navy.
5. The Indian Navy’s first independent mission was against the Portuguese Navy during the liberation of Goa in 1961.
6. INS (Indian Naval Ship) Vikrant was the navy’s first aircraft carrier and the oldest aircraft carrier in the world.
7. The Sagar Prahari Bal (SPB) formed in March 2009 after the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, is the unit of the Indian Navy responsible for patrolling India’s coastal waters.
8. MARCOS or Marine Commandos, nicknamed magarmach, are the special operations (very secretive) unit of the Indian Navy.
They are widely feared by terrorists who call them ‘ Dadiwali fauj ‘ because of their bearded disguises in civil areas. They played a huge role during the rescue mission of the hostages during the 26/11 attacks of Mumbai.
9. The MARCOS are given rigourous training that they can undertake operation on any terrain. They face a 90% drop-out rate during training and recruitment.
10.There are only two naval aerobatic teams in the world and one of them is our country’s navy. It is known as Saagar Pawan .
11. Indian Navy uses a multi-band communication satellite called GSAT – 7.
It helps Indian Navy to acquire the blue water capabilities, which means an oceangoing fleet is able to operate on the high seas far from its nation’s homeports.
12. The Indian Navy has successfully completed an expedition to the North Pole and the South Pole.
13. Indian Navy was the first navy to send a submariner on an expedition to Mt. Everest!
14. The sole ship lost by the Indian Navy in a war was INS Khukri in the war of 1971. The ship was headed by Captain MN Mulla who ordered evacuation of all the sailors on board and went to the depth of the ocean with Khukri.
15. Indian Navy has no recipient of the glorious Param Veer Chakra.
16. Indian Navy has three commands: Eastern Command in Vishakhapatnam, Western Command in Mumbai and Southern Command in Cochin. Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief is the head of each command center.
17. Indian Navy has significant contribution in combating Somali pirate in order to ensure safe passage of merchant ships. Here is a video :
18. The Indo-Pak war of 1971 also known as Bangladesh independence war, was the first war when Indian Navy projected its might. In the war of 1965 the Navies role was to escort merchant ships to India.
19. In operation Trident, Only three missile boat of the Killer Squadron attacked Karachi port and incapacitated the Pakistani supply route.
20. In operation Trident the three missile boats named INS Nipat, INS Nirghat & INS Veer were communicating with each other in Russian as the officers on the ships knew Russian. This confused the Pakistani interceptors about the reality of the boats.
21. INS Arihant a 6,000 tonne vessel is India’s first indigenous nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine.
22. After the induction of Kalam-4 (K4) Submarine Launched Ballistic missile (SLBM) on INS Arihant, India will complete its nuclear traid.
23. India will have its first supercarrier in INS Vishal by 2025.
24. This fact is my favorite, In case of war if Indian Navy applies a naval blockade at Port Bin Kasim (Karachi), then the Indian Army has the capability of reach Afghanistan cutting across Pakistan in 14 hours.
1. The Indian Military College Committee, set up under the chairmanship of Field Marshal Sir Philip Chetwode, recommended in 1931 the establishment of an Indian Military Academy in Dehradun to produce forty commissioned officers twice a year following two and a half years of training.
2. Brigadier L.P. Collins was appointed the first Commandant and the first batch of 40 Gentleman Cadets (GC), as Indian Military Academy trainees are known, began their training on 1 October 1932.
3. Indian Military Academy was inaugurated on 10 December 1932, at the end of the first term by Field Marshal Chetwode.
4. The first batch of cadets to pass out of the Academy in December 1934, now known as the Pioneers, included Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw, General Muhammad Musa and Lieutenant General Smith Dun, who became the Army Chiefs of India, Pakistan, and Burma, respectively.
5. 3887 officers were commissioned between August 1941 and January 1946, including 710 British officers for the British Army.
6. Post- Independence Brigadier Thakur Mahadeo Singh, DSO, was appointed the first Indian Commandant of the academy.
7. Brigadier M.M. Khanna, MVC was the first IMA alumni to be appointed Commandant of the IMA at the end of 1956.
8. In 1976, the four battalions of the IMA were renamed the Cariappa Battalion, Thimayya Battalion, Manekshaw Battalion and Bhagat Battalion with two companies each in honour of Field Marshal Kodandera Madappa Cariappa, General Kodendera Subayya Thimayya, Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw and Lieutenant General Premindra Singh Bhagat, respectively.
9. In 1977, the Army Cadet College (ACC) was moved from Pune to Dehradun as a wing of the IMA. In 2006, the ACC was merged into the IMA as its Siachen Battalion.
10. IMA had trained over 60,000 officers commissioned into armies of the world, including Angola, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, Ghana,Iraq, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Nepal, Nigeria, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Tonga, Uganda, Yemen and Zambia besides those of United Kingdom, Pakistan, and India.
11. The IMA Museum on the campus displays artefacts of historic importance. Among other war relics, it displays the pistol of Lieutenant General Amir Abdullah Khan Niaziof the Pakistan Army which he surrendered to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora after signing the Instrument of Surrender to end the [liberation War of 1971]].
12. A trainee on admission to the IMA is referred to as a Gentleman Cadet. One reason for this is that the academy expects its graduates to uphold the highest moral and ethical values.
The safety, honour and welfare of your country come first, always and every time.
The honour, welfare and comfort of the men you command come next.
Your own ease, comfort and safety come last, always and every time.
13. Sam Manekshaw, an alumnus of the IMA, was the first in India to become a Field Marshal.
14. Alumni who have been honoured with the Param Vir Chakra include:
- Major Somnath Sharma, Posthumous, 4 Kumaon Regiment, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
- Captain Gurbachan Singh Salaria, Posthumous, 1 Gorkha Rifles, Congo, 1961
- Lieutenant Colonel Hoshiar Singh, 3 Grenadiers, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
- 2nd Lieutenant Arun Khetarpal, Posthumous, 17 Poona Horse, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
- Captain Vikram Batra, Posthumous, 13 Jammu & Kashmir Rifles, Kargil War, 1999
- Captain Manoj Kumar Pandey, Posthumous, 11 Gorkha Rifles, Kargil War, 1999
15. Foreign alumni of the IMA have also done well in their countries.
- General M. A. G. Osmani- Commander-in-Chief of the Bangladesh Mukti Bahini
- General Yahya Khan- Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army and third President of Pakistan
- General Muhammad Musa Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army
- General Tikka Khan- Chief of Army Staff, Pakistan Army and martial law administrator in East Pakistan
- Lt General Ghulam Jilani Khan- Pakistani martial law administrator
- Lt General Habibullah Khan Khattak- Chief of General Staff, Pakistan Army
- Tun Hussein Onn- third Prime Minister of Malaysia
- General Ibrahim Ismail- Chief of Staff of the Malaysian Armed Forces
16. The 2004 Bollywood film Lakshya (film) is partly shot in IMA.
PINAKA is multiple barrel launch rocket system developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation for the use of Indian armed forces.
System is named after Shiva’s bow, Pinaka.
Launcher is mounted on BEML(Bharat Earth Movers Ltd company) Tatra truck for mobility.A single launcher contains 12 barrels.Rockets used are HE (High Explosive) rockets which can travel at a speed of mach 4. All 12 missiles can be fired in a 44 second salvo. Missile system works in unison with Swathi weapon locating radar. UAVs and drones can be used for locating targets. Pinaka was extensively used by Indian Army during Kargil war where it was highly effective against enemies. Effective firing range of Pinaka varies accrding to variant. For Mk1 it is 40 km and for Mk2 it is 75 km. A more sophisticated system with maximum range 120 km is also under development.
Owing to its success in Kargil war, missiles are being produced at a heavy rate of 5000 each year. PINAKA forms an integral part of India’s artillery. It is intended to replace BM 21 Grad MBLRS which have been in service with Indian artillery for long time.
BM21 Grad firing
Till 2022 India plans to operate 10 regiments of Pinaka and in next 10 years ,number will go upto 22 regiments.
This is a hydrogen bomb. It has the capability of killing millions. It can be minituarized and armed on an ICBM. It’s the only thing on Earth with such a capacity for destruction. It’s definitely the most dangerous thing on Earth. And yet, it has saved millions of lives, preventing nations from fighting out of fear of M.A.D. Such a paradox. The most powerful weapon on Earth is also our greatest safeguard from war. This is currently the most dangerous Hydrogen bomb on Earth.
Here’s a graphical representation of it’s firepower
India currently possesses 15 Submarines.
1 Arihant Class Nuclear Submarine.
1 Akula Class Nuclear Submarine.
9 Sindhughosh Class Submarines.
4 Shishumar Class Submarines.
Under construction/in trials-
India currently has 8 more Submarines under construction or in trials.
6 Kalvari Class Submarines.
The first one enters service next month, while the 6th and the final one by 2020–21.
2 more Arihant Class Nuclear Submarines-
First one, the INS Arihant is already active. The second one, INS Aridhaman is in trials and is expected to be ready by 2018 , while the unnamed third one by 2020–21.
So India adds 8 more Submarines in the next 4–5 years till 2020–21, taking the total submarine force to 23.
Future road map-
Next in line is the Project 75I, which will add 6 more submarines between 2025–2030. The submarines will be built by an Indian Shipyard in collaboration with a Foreign shipyard.
If everything goes as planned, the construction is expected to start in the early 2020s.
3–4 yet unnamed and larger “Arihant Follow on” Class Submarines
These will be Larger Nuclear Ballistic missile submarines carrying ICBMs like the K-5 (Which is under developement). Not much information is available on this, but all the 3–4 submarines can be expected by around 2030.
6 Nuclear Attack Submarines
The Govt. of India sanctioned this project in 2015, after which the design and development started. Again like India’s Nuclear Submarine programme , much information is not available, but construction can be expected to begin in the mid-late 2020s after design and development and all the 6 to be inducted by mid to late 2030s.
The 6 Project 75I and 6 Nuclear Attack Submarines will replace the 13 Shishumar and Sindhughosh Class Submarines in the Navy. So, say around 2037, 20 years down the line, the Indian Navy will posses around 26 Modern Submarines including 14 Nuclear Powered ones.
- KALI 5000 is India’s self defence weapon which is under development. It can stop missiles, air crafts, enemy satellites anything with an electric circuit inside it.
- It is designed to work in such a way that if a missile is launched in India’s direction,then it will quickly emit powerful pulses of Relativistic Electrons Beams (REB) which will fry and destroys enemy’s electric circuit and the computer chip.
Project & Design of weapon kali
- The idea for KALI, or this technology was first raised in the year 1985 by Dr. Chidambaram, and work began on the Project in the year 1989.
- The KALI has been developed by the Defence Research Development Organization (DRDO) and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).It had been initially developed for industrial applications, although defense applications became clearer later.
Development of KALI
- The first Accelerator had a power of ~ 0.4 gigawatts, which increased as later version was developed, which are the KALI 80, KALI 200. KALI 1000, KALI 5000 and KALI 10000.
- The KALI is was expected to be ready by 2004, but later it had passed through many tests and many other versions than KALI 5000 are produced and tested.
Specifications of KALI
- The KALI-5000 is a pulsed accelerator of 1 MeV electron energy, 50-100 ns pulse time, 40kA Current and 40 GW Power level.
- The system is quite bulky as well, with the KALI-5000 weighing 10 tons, and the KALI-10000, weighing 26 tons. They are also very power hungry, and require a cooling tank of 12,000 liters of oil.
- Recharging time is also too long to make it a viable weapon in its present form.
How KALI Works
- The KALI emits powerful pulses of electrons Relativistic Electron Beams (REB). These electron pulses are about 100 ns with an energy of about 1 MeV.
- These electrons are converted into Electromagnetic Radiation, which can be adjusted to x-ray (as Flash X-Rays) or microwave (High Power Microwave) frequencies with this microwaves KALI will be used as High Power Microwave gun.
Main Features or Uses of KALI
- KALI a High Power Microwave gun produces a high amount of microwaves. When these burst of 1000 million gigawatts microwaves aimed at any enemy missile or aircraft it destroys there electronics circuit and computers chip of missile or aircraft, these completely paralyzes computer system and bring them down.
- These electrostatic shields will be used to protect the electronic circuit against Electromagnetic Impulses (EMI) generated by nuclear weapons and other cosmic disturbances.
- This electrostatic shield will use for protecting LCA Tejas. The satellite also will be using this electrostatic shields. application of KALI in defence field will take some time.
- The system is still under development, and efforts are being made to make it more compact, as well as improve its recharge time, which, at the present, makes it only a single use system.
- India is believed to have already conducted a successful test. There had been unconfirmed reports blaming India for the Siachen glacier avalanche in 2012 which has caused the death of around 135 Pakistani soldiers which the sources claim as a result of KALI’s successful test melting the hard ice sheets.
- There have been reports of placing the weaponized KALI in an IL-76 aircraft as an airborne defense system.
- Government of India has denied to give any information on this project due to its sensitiveness for national security.
“Bharat Drone” is a light surveillance quadcopter made by Chandigarh based Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL) which is a lab owned by DRDO.
Images are for representation purposes only.
Now this is not a usual quadcopter. What makes this advanced & special is that it has got the right blend of technologies that makes it so capable of day/night operations even in extreme cold climate. The drones are highly agile & that comes from a lightweight composite & plastic unibody airframe. Not only this makes the drone maneuverable but also increases the endurance. There is no official release on the numbers yet but for a good guess, it’s endurance would be anywhere between 30 – 60 minutes. As a latest trend in drone technology, the Bharat Drone can fly in groups taking advantage of what is known as swarm drone technology (pic below for representation).
In this a group of drones actually “talk” to each other & access their position. They also share information to each other when necessary. A group of swarm drones would have multiple drones & only one of them need to be controlled by the operator & the rest would communicate within themselves. Talking about it’s capabilities even more the Bharat Drone is capable of autonomous operations where in predefined coordinates are fed to the drone prior to the flight & the drone can fly to those coordinates & perform surveillance. This type of navigation is called waypoint navigation (pic below). In emergency, it can be controlled manually in a manual override mode.
Usually the drones of this size have a line of sight telemetry range of 25 km & an operational radius of 10 km. Though no comment has been made by DRDO on this, we can expect similar numbers for the Bharat Drone. During these surveillance the drone can relay live video feed from it’s day/night camera. The live feed is transmitted to the command center who have “eyes in the sky” to have a real time update on the situation in the ground & can direct it’s troops accordingly.
Live video feed for representation purposes.
Another significant feature of the drone is the use of Artificial Intelligence in the visual sensors & cameras to distinguish between friends and enemies and take action accordingly. The Bharat drone is also said to have a sensor that can look through dense forest cover. This is believed to be a thermal sensor which detects the heat signature of the body, be it a human or a vehicle.
Thermal image from an aerial platform.
Lastly the drone is equipped with “advance release technology” which suggests that the drone is capable of dropping munitions over a target, however this is not confirmed by DRDO & is still a speculation. Bharat drone is in service with Indian armed forces & is pressed into action in the eastern Ladakh region near the Indo-China LAC.
Su-30 MKI– Highly Modern (4+ gen) Russian Aircraft. Developed version of Su-27 (first russian jet to perform the cobra manoeuvre) which means high agility. It carries One X 30mm GSH gun alongwith 8000 kg external armament. It is capable of carrying a variety of medium-range guided air to air missiles with active or semi-active radar or Infra red homing close range missiles. It has a max speed of 2500 km/hr (Mach 2.35). Capable of launching BrahMos missiles, which gives it a big edge over others in the list.
Dassault Rafale– India Recently bought 36 of these in a bid to modernise the inventory of IAF. A highly capable fighter that has one of the best HUDs in the world, making it pilot friendly. It has a wide variety of weapons it can fire including, but not restricted to Mica, Magic, Sidewinder, ASRAAM and AMRAAM AA missiles; Apache, AS30L, ALARM, HARM, Maverick and PGM100 air-to-ground missiles and Exocet / AM39, Penguin 3 and Harpoon anti-ship missiles.
MiG-29 UPG– This is the upgraded version of one of the most famous Russian Fighters ever created. IAF became the first foreign Air Force to order the MiG-29 in 1986. It is a very agile fighter and is a rugged dogfighter. The digital FBW systems in the UPG has made it “the most advanced version of the MiG-29,till date” according to the Mikoyan Guerevich itself. It is capable of attaining max. speed of 2445 km per hour (Mach-2.3). It has a combat ceiling of 17 km. It carries a 30 mm cannon alongwith four R-60 close combat and two R-27 R medium range radar guided missiles.
Mirage 2000– A single seater air defence and multi-role fighter of French origin powered by a single engine can attain max speed of 2495 km/hr(Mach 2.3). It carries two 30 mm integral cannons and two matra super 530D medium-range and two R-550 magic II close combat missiles on external stations. It was recently significantly upgraded with Thales RDY 2 radar, which allows for very long-range engagement of targets in the air, automatic tracking of targets, mapping of targets on the ground using Doppler beam-sharpening techniques, and the ability to track and engage targets which are moving on the ground. And yes, this jet is our hero from Balakot airstrikes.
HAL Tejas– The one true Indian on the list. The Tejas is designed to carry a veritable plethora of air to air, air to surface, precision guided and standoff weaponry. In the air to air arena, the Tejas carries long range beyond visual range weapons, with highly agile high off-boresight missiles to tackle any close combat threat. A wide variety of air to ground munitions and an extremely accurate navigation and attack system allow it to prosecute surface targets over land or at sea with unparalleled accuracy, giving the Tejas true multi/swing role capability. It will be replacing the ageing MiG-21.
MiG-21 Bison– This is a controversial entry as many people will argue that since it is a platform which is over 60 years of age, it should not be placed above SEPECAT Jaguar and MiG-27. However, the MiG 21 never seems to have aged. It is by far the IAF’s favorite fighter with over 800 of them operated since the 1960s. It is also by far the most experienced veteran having seen many dogfights and CAS ops since 1965, the most recent being the standoff between India and Pakistan in 2019. They have a cult following in India but are deemed to retire by 2021, to be replaced by the Tejas. It has a max speed of 2230 km/hr (Mach 2.1) and carries one 23mm twin barrel cannon with four R-60 close combat missiles.
SEPECAT Jaguar– A twin-engine, single seater deep penetration strike aircraft of Anglo-French origin which has a max. speed of 1350 km /hr (Mach 1.3). It has two 30mm guns and can carry two R-350 Magic CCMs (overwing) alongwith 4750 kg of external stores (bombs/fuel). This aircraft will soon be gone like its Russian cousin by the name of MiG-27. India is the last operator of this jet in the world with France, Britain and Oman having retired it. Indian Jaguars were used to carry out reconnaissance missions in support of the IPKF in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. They later saw an active role in the 1999 Kargil War
• Agni 5 is the most accurate Inter Continental Ballistic Missile in the world with less than 10m CEP. It has a yield of 300 kT.
•BrahMos is the fastest cruise missile in the world.
• Akash air defence missile is one of the cheapest and most effective missiles in its category.
• BrahMos missile has sea skimming capability and can fly as low as 3 metres from water surface.This makes it invisible to some of the air defence systems.
• During 1971 war, a Styx missile was used by India to destroy Pakistans Kemari oil storage .It was the first time when a missile purely developed for an anti-ship role was used for land attack purpose.
• Operation Trident saw the first use of anti-ship missiles in South east Asia region.
• BrahMos is portmanteau of Brahmaputra river of India and Moskva river of Russia.
• Prithvi and Akash air defence missiles made India fourth nation in the world to have developed ballistic missile defence system after USA,Russia and Israel.
•Nag anti-tank missile is the only missile in the world to have full fibre glass body .
•K 15 missile along with Arihant class submarine completed Indias nuclear triad.
• Indias K series of submarine launched ballistic missiles is named after Sir APJ Abdul Kalam who was known as “missile man of India”.
• PDV mk2 used in Indias mission Shakti made India fourth nation in the world to have ability to shoot down satellites after USA,Russia and China.
P1. Defense Budget
A. India: US$ 70 billion in Feb. 2020
B. China: US$177.61 billion in June 2019
2. Total manpower
India : 61.6 million
China : 75 million
3. Total Active Army
India: 13.25 lacs
China: 23.35 lacs
4.Aircraft (all types)
12. Destroyer Ships
14.Mine Warfare craft
India’s mirage 2000 is one of the fastest supersonic fighter jets in the world. It is a deep strike fighter aircraft used to break the enemies defense and carry out missions like dropping bombs of precision guided or missiles.
It can act so spontaneous in order to avoid retaliation in very fast . Besides it has the ability to fly at lower altitude in order to avoid radar signature or radar cross section.
The Mirage 2000 has a maximum speed of Mach 2.2 (2336 kmph) and can travel 1550 km with drop tanks. The flight height is capped at 59000 ft (17km). though it is a 4th generation fighter jet India had upgraded this extensively to maintain its capabilities par with the modern fighters.
Besides, mirage 2000 is the best suitable fighter for fitting spice bombs ,and airforce went for it with good confidence, that turned out to be great success. Moreover, it had been used extensively during kargil war striking enemies bunkers at high altitudes.
Best cruise missile in the world.
• Akash missile
Indegenously developed air defence missiles.
• Agni 5
The most aaccurate ICBM in the world with less than 10m CEP.
• K 15 and K 4
Provides second strike capability to India.
• Prithvi air defence
Ballistic missile defence system.
• Pinaka mblrs
Rocket system which proved its metal in Kargil war.
• Sukhoi su30 mki
Backbone of Indian airforce .
• Dassault Rafael
The latest addition .
• Mig 29k
Fangs of INS Vikramaditya .
• NETRA AWACS
Airbourne warning and control system developed by DRDO.
One of the largest cargo helicopters in the world.
• HAL LCH
Indegenously developed attack helicopter.Highly effective at high altitudes.
• HAL Rudra
Primary utility helicopter of Indian military.
A Russian tank but we have more than Russia
• Arjun mk2
Indegenously developed Main battle Tank.
• BMP 2
Armoured personnel carrier.
• Dhanush artillery gun
• Bofors Haubits fh77
Despite huge controversy, proved its effectiveness in Kargil war.
Light weight artillery gun .
• Kolkata class destroyers
Stealth guided missile destroyer.
• Vishakhapattanam class destroyers
Largest destroyers built by India.
• INS Vikramaditya
Flag ship of Indian Navy.
• INS Vikrant
Indias first home built aircraft carrier.
• INS Arihant
Completed Indias nuclear triad.
• Kalvari class
Diesel powered attack submarine
• Kamov ka 31
LAST BUT NOT LEAST
• INS Vikramaditya is the largest ship ever operated by Indian Navy.
• Ship was originally commissioned in Soviet Navy as Baku and in Russian Navy as Admiral Gorshkov.
• After being sold to India,it was heavily modified with its forward missile batteries replaced by a ski jump.
• INS Vikramaditya is the first Indian ship to have a SBI ATM onboard.
• INS Vikramaditya carries 1610 sailors.
• To feed them,about a 100000 eggs, 20000 litres of milk and 16 tonnes of rice is needed each month.
• INS Vikramaditya is the flagship of Indian Navy.
• Carrier has an automated idli and dosa maker onboard.
• NATO once tried to spy the ship by dropping sonobuoys.Plane left when Russian MiG29s were scrambled.
• INS Vikramaditya is the third carrier operated by Indian Navy.
• Carrier has 22 decks to accomodate Mig 29 Ks and Ka31 helicopters.
Well, First we have to understand the difference between ballistic missile and guided missile . Ballistic missiles are missile which follows a particular trajectory and it is launched to the higher layer of earth atmosphere in the initial stage and the later part is not much powered by fuel as it hit the target with the help of gravity .
Ballistic missiles are very difficult to intercept as it travels at high speed approximately 30 times more than the speed of the sound.
And ballistic missiles travel mostly in predefined trajectory and it cannot alter it’s trajectory once launched. And ballistic missiles are used for long target and mostly used for intercontinental missions , Agni 5 is an intercontinental ballistic missile.
Now coming to guided missiles, these are operated by the flight mechanism and it travels by constant speed, it also powered by a scramjet engine or cryogenic engine to power the missile for movement.
This missile system got complex electronic guided part which can alter the direction and change the trajectory even after launching ,these are high precision missile which can take down target accurately and there are fire and forget type which track down the object even it is moving in different direction, but unlike ballistic missiles ,the speed of the missile is much low and is between mach 2 to 4 or 6 to 7 times the speed of the sound.
So both missile systems are different for different objectives. S-400 system is an anti aircraft and anti missile system ,which is used to take down an incoming air threat. This is can intercept incoming missiles or aircraft successfully and is designed for that particular objective .
Whereas ballistic missiles are used to destroy a ground target which is predefined . It is not used to intercept any missiles or aircrafts. So ballistic missiles cannot be used against anti aircraft or missile.
So Agni missile cannot be used against intercepting the S400 system , but India has many other anti missile defense system like , Indian akash system , Israeli barrack system, Brahms air defence system and American IAMD and SMDC and the future induction of S400 system.
Ballistic missiles are very difficult to intercept by any counter missiles, no system in the world claim complete supremacy over ballistic threat. Ballistic missiles travel more than 30 times the speed of the sound, whereas missile systems like S-400 and any other counterparts can travel maximum 3 to 6 times the speed of sound . Besides ,the present ballistic missiles are based on MRV ( multiple reentry vehicle ) technology ,where a single ballistic missile can carry multiple warhead and can split and hit multiple target . So intercepting such ballistic missile is merely impossible.
As the F-22 is a stealth fighter, the engineers wanted to reduce it’s radar cross-section as much as possible. To do this, they put the weapons literally inside the aircraft. So, instead of carrying them in outside pylons, this innovative design reduced the radar cross-section since the weapons are removed from the outside. This also cuts down on air resistance, hence making it more fuel efficient.
Here, you can see the missile coming out of the storage compartment.
In this image, you can see all of the missile bay doors open. I have pointed an arrow at the side door from which the missile of the previous image was released.
And what’s more is that the F-35 also has it’s weapons similarly ‘hidden’ like the F-22 inside its body!
BUT IT ALSO CARRIES MISSILES BENEATH ITS WINGS, UNLIKE THE F-22, WHICH HAS MOST OF ITS ARMAMENTS INSIDE THE AIRCRAFT (THE EXTERNAL WEAPONS ARE USUALLY CONSIDERED SECONDARY)
Here is the F-35 with its missile bay doors wide open. You can also see two missiles on the doors, which I have marked with arrows as well as two orange coloured bombs.
Here, you can see which weapons are situated where on the F-22 (note that not all weapons are always carried on the internal bays.)
STEALTHY AIR-TO-AIR covers those weapons that it can possibly carry in it’s internal space
NON STEALTHY EXTERNAL COMBAT covers those weapons/accessories that do not fit, or need to be carried externally only.
Here, you can see which weapons are situated where on the F-35 (There are not many weapons for the internal bay, as you can see)
NOTE- All of these weapons are not carried at once, this picture only shows how many potential weapons are compatible with the aircraft in different places
1.Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit – $2.1bn
The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a US Air Force (USAF) heavy-penetration stealth bomber launched in 1989. The aircraft can infiltrate complex and dense air-defence shields, while it is capable of all-altitude attack operations up to 50,000ft.
B-2’s original unit cost was $737m, making it the most expensive aircraft ever built. However, due to retrofitting and adjustments in 1997, its overall cost now stands at $2.1bn. It costs $135,000/hr to operate.
F-22 Raptor – $350m
The F-22 Raptor is considered to be one of the most highly advanced fighter jets. It is built by Lockheed Martin and Boeing for around $350m per aircraft ($143m unit cost). The total programme cost is around $66bn.
P-8A Poseidon – $290m
The P-8A Poseidon is a militarised version of the Boeing 737-800ERX. It has been produced by Boeing for the US Navy and has an overall procurement cost of around $290m per aircraft. India, Australia, the UK, and Norway are current users of the P-8A, while South Korea purchased six of the aircraft in September 2018.
Northrop Grumman E-2D Advanced Hawkeye – $232m
The E-2 Hawkeye was first developed by the Grumman Aircraft Company (now Northrop Grumman) for the US Navy in the late 1950s. It took its first flight in October 1960 and is also currently used by Taiwan, Mexico, Japan, France, and Egypt.
F-35 Lightning II – $115.5m
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lighting II fighter jets are built as part of the 1996 Joint Strike Fighter programme and were introduced in December 2006 (F-35A). The aircraft are produced by Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Pratt and Whitney, and BAE Systems.
Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey – $118m
The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is a multirole combat aircraft featuring a tiltrotor system. It carried out its first flight in March 1989, but crashes during flight testing and unstable funding resulted in several delays until 2007 when the aircraft entered service in the US Marine Corps. The USAF fielded its version of the aircraft (CV-22B) in 2009 and the US Navy plans to use the CMV-22B variant in 2021.
Chengdu J-20 Black Eagle – $110m
The Chengdu J-20 ‘Mighty Dragon’ is a fifth-generation, single-seat, stealth fighter aircraft made by China’s Chengdu Aerospace Corporation. Following its earlier maiden flight in January 2011, it has been deployed in the People’s Liberation Army Air Force since March 2017 and is China’s first stealth aircraft.
J-20s costs around $110m each, while overall programme expenses are estimated to be around $4.4bn.
- The French-made Rafale fighter is a high-precision medium-sized multi-role fighter. It is said that this is one of the most modern 4.5-generation aircraft. It has the ability to carry multiple weapons and deliver them accurately. The construction of the Rafale fighter can ensure the survivability of the airborne system itself.
- The Rafale has two engines, and each wet spot can carry three 2000-liter tanks. The fighter is equipped with active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar with a range of more than 350 kilometers. The Rafale fighter has a low-shooting ability. Rafale also has an integrated electronic warfare (EW) system.
- The Rafale can carry up to 6 air-to-air missiles (AAM) and 6 expert bombs. Rafale will be integrated with MBDA Meteor BVRAAM, beyond line-of-sight air-to-air missiles and SCALP air-to-air missile ground missiles. BrahMos NG missiles can also be integrated on it.
- Rafale has air-to-air refueling capabilities.
It can refuel another aircraft in buddy mode. The Rafale for IAF has been manufactured based on India Specific Enhancements
- The Rafale fighter jets have several India-specific modifications. These include
- Israeli helmet-mounted displays,
- Low band jammers,
- Radar warning receivers,
- Infra-red search,
- Tracking systems,
- 10-hour flight data recording among others.
- Defence Minister Rajnath Singh exuded confidence that the aircraft, which means ‘aandhi’ in Hindi or gust of wind, will live up to its name. The Defence Minister said that a large number of IAF officers and airmen are being trained in France for flying, maintenance support and logistics for handling Rafale.
- All Rafale fighter jets are expected to arrive by 2022
- India is the fourth country, after Egypt, France, and Qatar, to bolster its fleet with the Rafale fighter jets. Rafale is also the second French fighter, Indian Air Force will have in its fleet. IAF already has Mirage 2000 which is also French-made.
- 5 Rafale jets landed in Ambala. Rafale aircraft would certainly provide the potent air defence that IAF required. He termed Rafale aircraft “by far the most potent platform for India’s air defence”.
240 F-15Cs, 26 F-15Ds
641 F-16Cs, 150 F-16Ds
aswell as other combat aircraft like:
50 CV-22Bs (used for Combat Search and Rescue)
84 HH-60G/Us (Combat Search and Rescue)
18 F-35Cs (13 of them for training)
532 F/A-18E/Fs (131 for training)
155 EA-18Gs (while mostly for radar jamming, just like the old EA-6Bs it replaced, they are also essentially Navy “Wild Weasels”)
41 P-3Cs (4 used for recon)
508 SH-60s (among a variety of roles is hunting submarines)
this one’s a bit iffy, but – 29 MH-53Es (these are used for minesweeping, and also actually laying mines)
US Marine Corps:
81 F-35Bs (29 used for training)
BRAHMOS IS AN EXCEPTIONALLY LEAD MISSILE OF INDIA AND CAN BE OPERATED FROM LAND,AIR AND SEA WHICH GIVES INDIA A GREAT ADVANTAGE OVER OTHER COUNTRIES ESPECIALLY CHINA.
IT IS ALSO THE FASTEST CRUISE MISSILE IN THE WORLD PRODUCED IN INDIA WITH PARTNESHIP OF RUSSIA. WELL THE MISSILE IS SIGNIFICANTLY TRIED AND TESTED AND HAS A RANGE THAT CAN ABSORB CERTAIN CITIES OF CHINA.
The missile system is” all in one “ which means missile system much advanced. The BrahMos – a short-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from aircraft , land , ships ,submarine. … Brahmos can take out important cities of china.
The BrahMos is actually slightly faster at Mach 2.8 than the P-800. It also weighs twice as much as a Tomahawk, at six thousand pounds.
The combination of twice the weight and four times greater speed as a Tomahawk result in vastly more kinetic energy when striking the target. Despite having a smaller warhead, the effects on impact are devastating.
Even more importantly, the BrahMos’s ability to maintain supersonic speeds while skimming at low altitude makes it very difficult to detect and intercept. To cap it off, the BrahMos performs an evasive “S-maneuver” shortly before impact, making it difficult to shoot down at close range.
If the attack is launched within 120 kilometers of the target, it can skim at very low altitude the entire way to the target. While missiles can be detected earlier if benefiting from AWACs aircraft, a ship would likely detect a sea-skimming missile at range of only thirty kilometers, affording the vessel only a thirty second time window to respond. One intriguing analysis argues that a U.S. Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, with its layered air defenses, could not handle more twelve BrahMos missiles at once and that an entire carrier battle group would be saturated by more than sixty-four.
BrahMos is a very costly missile. Unit cost is around $3 million or Rs. 20 crores for a piece. Each BrahMos missile can carry 300 kg of explosives. Media sources say IAF hits 5 to 6 target which means around 3000 kg of ordnance being used. Means we need to fire 10 units of BrahMos missile. So the total cost rises up to Rs. 200 crores for BrahMos missile attack plus other operational costs.
The SPICE 1000 (500 kg) bomb costs around $0.5 million or Rs. 3 crores for a piece. 6 targets or 3000 kg means 6 units of the bomb. Total cost: Rs. 18 crores + other operational costs.
Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight. The two main refueling systems are probe-and-drogue, which is simpler to adapt to existing aircraft, and the flying boom, which offers faster fuel transfer, but requires a dedicated boom operator station.
The 5 Rafale fighter aircraft en route to India were refuelled mid-air. Pictures of the refuelling exercise were taken at a height of 30,000 feet. The Indian Air Force ‘appreciated the support’ provided by the French Air Force for the Rafale journey. France used an Airbus A330 multi-role tanker transport to refuel the Rafale jets. The aircraft had left for India on July 27 with a stopover in the United Arab Emirates. While France provided fuel support in the first leg of the journey, IAF’s Ilyushin-78s will take over for the second leg. This is the first batch of Rafales being delivered to India after a deal was finalised by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his then French counterpart Francois Hollande in 2015. India has bought 36 Rafale jets for Rs 59,000 crore. They will be part of the IAF’s No. 17 squadron, the ‘Golden Arrows’.
- Enhanced M88 Engine:
- The engine has been modified to allow the Rafale to operate in a multitude of extreme operational environments ranging from high altitudes to deserts. Engine condition monitoring sensors are being attached to maintain the Rafale’s overall engine health.
- Doppler Weather Radar:
- The radar located at the nose of the fighter aircraft the Doppler Weather radar is capable of letting the pilot know about the weather ahead
- Indian Regional Navigation Satellite With SIGMA:
- The indigenous satellite system is being made compatible with the French-designed fighter platform
- Extra Filtered Oxygen Generation:
- This enhancement is designed to filter out particulate matter, found in high altitude. The onboard oxygen generation system will serve to reduce the risk of hypoxia to fighter pilots, which is a result of lowering levels of oxygen supply ot the pilot.
- Spice 1000 Smart Bomb:
- The Israeli designed SPICE smart missiles are to be integrated into the Rafales aerial panel.
- Quad Pack Ejectors
- X Gaurd Fibre Optic Towed Decoy
This decoy system is designed to counter incoming enemy surface to air missiles (SAM’s) and air to air missiles (AAM’s)
Source from ssbcrack
India–specific enhancements include,
- helmet-mounted sight,
- radar warning receivers,
- flight data recorders with enough storage for 10 hours of data,
- infrared search and track systems,
- jammers and cold engine start capability to operate from high-altitude bases.
Source from Hindustantimes.
- Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor – The F-22 raptor is the best fighter jets in the world developed by Lockheed Martin and Boeing is a singler seat, twin engine and fifth generation fighter aircraft ( Rafale is a 4.5 G aircraft ). It has stealth technology. which is the most latest and advanced avionics. The F-22 cannot be exported from the UNITED STATES under the US federal laws.
Source : Google
2.Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightening II – It is again developed by US. Also a 5th generation aircraft.
3. Sukhoi-57- Su-57 is intented to be the first modern fighter jet to use stealth technology in the Russian military service. It is considered to be the cheapest among all the fighter aircraft .
RBE2 LPI (Low probability of intercept) AESA Radar with 838 TR modules is superior to anything Pakistani or Substandard Chinese radars.
Meteor Ramjet BVR missiles
This missile is having the highest range among all air to air missiles. Heavier Russian missiles are for awacs and slow transport aircraft.
Stealthy scalp missile with 600km standoff range for hitting ground targets. It can take nuclear payload.
ASRAAM (Advanced Short Range Air To Air Missile) IR Guided high off boresight missile
Cued by the Targo helmet-mounted display (HMD)
Hammer Guided munition (Highly Agile and Manoeuvrable Munition Extended Range) is a rocket-enabled air to ground precision missile that has range of 60 km perfectly suited for high altitude.
Neuron UCAV can be controlled by Rafale
It is a stealthy autonomous ucav that can function in medium- to high-threat combat zones. A loyal wingman for the Rafale.
Mica Air to Air missile
MBDA MICA is an anti-air multi-target, all weather, fire-and-forget short and medium-range missile system.
Spectra Electronic Warfare suite
SPECTRA integrated electronic warfare suite provides long-range detection, identification and accurate localisation of infrared homing, radio frequency and laser threats. The system incorporates radar warning receiver, laser warning and Missile Approach Warning for threat detection plus a phased array radar jammer and a decoy dispenser for threat countering. It also includes a dedicated management unit for data fusion and reaction decision.
In September 2016, India has a deal with the French government to purchase 36 Rafale jets at a cost of around Rs. 58,000 crore. In this deal, we get 28 single-seater jets and 8 twin seaters for training.
In the backdrop of the 26 February dogfight between IAF and the Pakistan Air Force (PAF), PM Modi had earlier said the outcome of the aerial battle would have been “something different” if India had Rafale jets.
Rafale is one of the finest fighters in the world. Rafale is a Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) that is said to boost India’s air dominance exponentially, currently safeguard by fighter jets like Russia made Sukhoi Su-30 MKI and MiG 29, along with French Mirage- 2000 and indigenously built HAL Tejas.
Rafale is a modern fighter jet known for its agility and speed. It is capable of carrying a range of potent weapons and missiles. It is powered by two SNECMA M88 engines, each capable of providing up to 50 kilonewtons of dry thrust and 75 kilonewtons with afterburners. With a range of 3,700 km and a maximum speed of 1389 km/h. The landing ground run is 450 metres without drag-chute. It is 15.27 metres long and a wingspan of 10.80 metres.
The empty weight of Rafale is about 10 tonne and the maximum take-off weight of 24.5 tonnes. It is fitted with 14 hardpoints and five of these are capable of drop tanks and heavy ordnance. The biggest advantage of Rafale is that it is capable of delivering nuclear weapons. Currently, Mirages are the designated aircraft for nuclear weapons.
The game-changing missile onboard the Rafale is the Meteor. Manufactured by European firm MBDA, the Meteor is a very long-range rocket and ram-jet powered air-to-air missile. Rafale weapon system brings about a paradigm shift in air-to-air affairs. It will be able to take out enemy aircraft at a range of over 100 km without even crossing the Indian air space. It has no escape zone of over 60 km.
Another key missile is Scalp long-range air to ground standoff cruise missile. It will also be equipped with Mica air-to-air missiles. The IAF plans to further integrate the BrahMos NG missiles with the Rafale when it is finally made by the Indo-Russian joint venture.
France uses Thales TALIOS laser designator pod but Indian Rafale comes with an Israeli Litening pod for sensor commonality. Instead of standard Sagems’s AASM Hammer air to surface munition, it will be integrated with Spice guidance kits.
Rafale has a Front Sector Optonics(FSO) system, which is immune to radar jamming while operating in optronic wavelengths and Spectra-integrated electronic warfare suite that provides long-range detection, identification, and localization of infrared, electromagnetic and laser threats.
It has the ability to take off from high altitudes airbases like Leh on a cold start for quick reaction deployment.
It comes with 13 Indian specific enhancements, including Israeli mounted displays, radar warning receivers, low band jammers, 10-hour flight data recording, infrared-red search, and tracking systems among others.
For almost two decades, the air force has been outgunned when it comes to long-range weapons and sensors by the Pakistani air force. Officials admit that for each Pakistani F 16 in the air, two Su 30MKI jets have to be scrambled because of the American origin jets superior radar and missiles. The Rafale will reverse this and give IAF the decisive edge with better sensors and weapons. Each Rafale in the air would require at least two F 16s for a counter challenge. Combined with the upcoming deliveries of the S 400 air defense system next year, it will greatly enhance Indian air superiority in the region. Combined, both systems will give India the ability to carry out airstrikes at will within Pakistan as a means to counter-terror attacks.
Comparison with Su- 30 MKI:
- Loitering Capability: 1.5 times of Su 30MKI
- Range 780-1055 km vs 400-500 of Su 30MKI
- 5 sorties per 24 hours against 3 by Su 30 MKI ( A sortie is a combat mission of an individual aircraft, starting when the aircraft takes off.)
‘RB’ on the trainer aircraft’s tail stands for the initials of Air Chief Marshal Rakesh Bhadauria, the IAF chief and the single-seater comes with initial of ‘BS’ which, stands for former IAF Chief Marshal B.S. Dhanoa.
In a dog-fight, advantage lies with one who targets the enemy first. And Radar helps in doing just that. In F16, Lockheed Martin has integrated technologies derived from the F-22 and F-35 including the Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) APG-83 radar. Its maximum engagement range is 20 targets at 84 kms.
Rafale on the other hand is fitted with 4 key technologies:
- A multi-directional radar which can detect 40 targets at the same time in a range of over 100 kms.
- An undetectable passive radar sensor which is an extremely precise optical camera.
- Recognisance pod: a massive digital camera which can take photos at any speed with a precision of 10 cms.
- And finally, Spectra, an integrated defence aid system which can jam or counter-jam enemy radar signals, give missile-approach warnings and send out decoy signals in case an enemy missile gets too close to the Rafale.
Decoy signal is an electromagnetic pulse sent from the rear of the plane which de-roots enemy missile.
Rafale is a 4.5th generation aircraft whereas the F-16 is 4th generation aircraft.
After going through the specifications it is clear that the Rafale is more on the advantageous side but it clearly shows that the dogfight between the two flying machines would be tough. But it also depends on the skill of the pilots which in turn depends on his country’s training capability. If the pilot is skilful then he can shoot down a more advanced jet with a less advanced jet, for instance the statements released by Indian AirForce(IAF)said that F-16 of the Pakistan AirForce(PAF), was shot down by a 3.5th generation Mig-21 BISON flown by IAF’s pilot Wing Commander Abhinandan Varthaman in march 2019
Conclusion:The dogfight Rafale and F-16 will be tough but the result also depends on the skills of the pilots.
About F-16: The F-16 is the world’s most successful, war-proven fourth-generation multirole fighter Jet. Its production was started by the USA in 1973. There are more than 4600 units of this single-engine aircraft (F-16) have been built and currently, 3000 units are still in service. Today, it is being used in 25 countries. Its speed is 2400 km per hour and the service duration is 12000 hours.
About Rafael:- Rafael is a multilayer fighter aircraft with two engines. This 4.5th generation fighter aircraft is made by the French company Dassault Aviation. Rafale can also be used for anti-nuclear strikes, anti-ship strikes, and in-depth operations. Its maximum speed is 2222 km/hour at high altitude.
Source from jagranjosh
Rafale can replace 7 different types of aircraft. That means the Rafale can undertake 7 different kind of missions which earlier required required 7 different kind of aircraft. Few of these missions can be undertaken in a single sortie. That’s why the Rafale is called Omni-role fighter.
Rafale would “boost” India’s air power if it offers something on top of what we have in terms of our best fighter Su-30MKI. Here are few things in consideration:
Radar Cross Section:
Rafale is a 4th generation fighter which means it is ahead of usual 4th generation fighter but is not a fully operational 5th generation fighter. It’s design incorporates stealth characteristics by using RAM (radar absorbing materials).
Stealth design features also include S-shaped engine inlets, serrated edges and a channel exhaust cooling scheme designed to reduce infrared signature. All These gives the Rafale a radar cross section between 0.1 – 1.0 square meters which is more than 10 times lower than a Su-30MKI which has a cross section of 4 square meter from the front & 21 square meter from the top/bottom.
Pic: Size comparison between Rafale & Su-30MKI.
That means while the Rafale can track & hunt aircraft like the Pakistani F-16 & JF-17 & the Chinese J-11 & J-16, they can’t see the Rafale unless it comes very near to them. Thus Rafale can fire from a greater & safer distance which brings me to my next point.
Air to Air armament:
All versions of the Rafale are equipped with what is internationally known as the best beyond visual range air to air missile (BVRAAM) of the world, the Meteor Missile. It has range of over hundred 100 km but what makes it different is the No escape zone (NEZ) which is of 60 km. That means if fired within 60 km of the target the missile will hit the target for sure. Usually the NEZ for contemporary missiles is of 20–25 km only.
Usually from a longer range the hit probability of single/dual pulse rocket motors based BVR missiles is 30–40 %. In case of Meteor missile this goes to as high as 60%.
The Meteor achieves this essentially because of its propulsion system. It uses a solid-fueled ramjet motor which allows the missile to cruise at a speed of over Mach 4 and provides the missile with thrust and mid-way acceleration to target intercept. This Throttle Ducted Rocket (TDR) motor is a pinnacle of missile technology something that even India is developing as the Astra Mk3 in the form of SFDR (solid fuel ducted ramjet).
Pic: Astra Mk3 – SFDR based missile. Ground based test.
Also the missile & the aircraft “talk” to each other. A two-way datalink enables the launch aircraft to provide mid-course target updates or re-targeting. Also the MICA-IR/EF short range missiles are a game changer when the battle comes to within visual range (WVR).
Currently the best of the line Su-30MKI uses the R-77 & RVV-AE (pic above) which are very decent missiles with 110 km range but they have single impulse rocket motor. Which means the rocket provides thrust in a short burst & the missile is propelled through it’s entire flight with the momentum only. Thus it bleeds energy rapidly in the end game if the target maneuvers rapidly.
Air to Ground armament:
Rafale comes with two major air to ground weapons:
- SCALPE-EG missile: It is stand-off long range cruise missile capable of hitting targets at 560 km. Now it’s not an ordinary cruise missile. Just like the aircraft the missile is also a stealth missile. It cannot be detected easily unless it comes very close to the target, at which point the target wont have anywhere to escape. Also thanks to such a huge range targets can be hit from a far away distance without having to invade the enemy’s surface to air defence bubbles.
- HAMMER missile: This is a bomb converted missile more optimised to attack ground targets in a shorter range where the target is low value & doesn’t necessitate firing a costly missile such as the SCALPE-EG. With a 50-70 km range, Rafale can carry 6 of these in one sortie. The Hammer being a precision guided weapon can hits target accurately even if they are in a mountainous terrain.
Currently the Sukhoi carries SPICE munition which is comparable to HAMMER albeit being more costly. The Su-30MKI can also fire the Russian Kh-59 cruise missile but it is nowhere as advanced as the SCALPE-EG. With the integration of BrahMos in Su-30MKI, the land attack capabilities are recently enhanced in the 40 Su-30s being upgraded to carry the supersonic missile.
Electronic Warfare suite:
This feature alone can turn tables.
The Rafale is equipped with a full fledged elaborate electronic warfare suite called SPECTRA (Self-Protection Equipment Countering Threats to Rafale Aircraft). The system incorporates radar warning receiver, laser warning and Missile Approach Warning for threat detection plus a phased array radar jammer and a decoy dispenser for threat countering.
Thanks to the SPECTRA suite, the Rafale can operate in a high electronic jamming environment where the enemy radars are in a constant lookout for fighters. This is a proven system & had proven its worth during Rafale’s operation in the Middle east.
The Su-30MKI also has similar sub systems but there is no one to one comparison between the two. The Su-30MKI uses an Israeli Jammer, DRDO Tarang Radar warning receiver & similar mixture of equipment from different nations.
Even after being a medium category aircraft, the Rafale carries more load than a Su-30MKI. The Rafale can carry almost 9.5 tons of external armament & fuel against 8 tons of Su-30MKI. The aircraft are seldom loaded in full capacity but this shows the thrust availability of the engines.
Also the Rafale is capable enough to perform nuclear strike & is one of the very few aircraft in our inventory to perform the aerial nuclear strike role. This is certainly welcome boost to the IAF as it reinforces the Nuclear Triad.
According to the deal with Dassault, the company is responsible for maintenance & support of the aircraft in such a way that it is their responsibility to make at least 75% of the fleet available for flying at any given point of time throughout it’s service life.
I comparison, only 60% of the entire Su-30MKI fleet is ready for operations at any time. This is due to the radar which requires servicing every 150 hours of flight, the engines which requires overhaul at every 1000 hours & the titanium nozzle at every 500 hours. This increases the maintenance requirement of the Sukhoi fleet.
The Rafale’s fleet do not have these issues & most of the major servicing is carried out by Dassault which is another welcome boost for the IAF.
I think these points clear out as to why the Rafale is a “Game Changer” which brings a lot of boost to the capabilities of the IAF.
In my humble opinion, the IAF should go for 36 more Rafale & cancel the MRFA (aka MMRCA 2.0) deal. The follow on Rafale aircraft can use the same infrastructure, support equipment & training, thus reducing the costs & saving time.
Air Force Station Hindan (Hindan AFS) under the western air command (WAC). It is the biggest and largest air base in Asia and 8th in the world. Its area measured 14 km rounded and 55 square kilometres (21 sq mi). Starting 2006, the annual Air Force Day Parade venue was shifted from Palam airport to Hindan.
- No. 77 squadron – C -130J SUPER HERCULES.
- No. 81 Squadron C-17 globemaster III
- No. 129 helicopter unit (Mil Mi -17IV)
- Originally the base was home to a squadron each of MiG-23s and MiG-27s, both single-engine fighters. After the 1965 war, No. 7 Squadron IAF moved to Hindan along with Hawker Hunters, and stayed here till 1969, when it moved to Bagdogra in West Bengal, subsequently during the East Pakistan Operations 1971 it flew in on 6 December 1971
- In 2006, Indian Air Force shifted its 74th Anniversary celebration venue from Palam airport in Delhi, to Hindan to avoid airspace closure for commercial traffic, where the Air Force Day Parade cum investiture ceremony was held on 8 October, and an air display by 66 aircraft.This also gave the IAF aircraft more air space during the air show, till then was uses primarily as a helicopter base. After that it has become an annual event at the station
- The Garud Commando Force of the Indian Air Force are trained at this base.
ఆర్మీ, నేవీ, ఎరుుర్ఫోర్స్.. దేశ రక్షణలో కీలక పాత్ర పోషించే త్రివిధ దళాలు. యూపీఎస్సీ నిర్వహించే నేషనల్ డిఫెన్స్ అకాడమీ అండ్ ఇండియన్ నేవల్ అకాడమీ(ఎన్డీఏ-ఎన్ఏ)పరీక్ష ద్వారా.. త్రివిధ దళాల్లో కొలువు సొంతం చేసుకోవచ్చు.
ఎన్డీఏ ఎన్ఏ(I) -2020 ప్రిపరేషన్ గెడైన్స్…
దేశవ్యాప్తంగా జరిగే ఎంపిక ప్రక్రియలో రాణిస్తే ఎన్డీఏ-ఎన్ఏలో ప్రవేశం లభిస్తుంది. సైన్యంలో కెరీర్కు మార్గం సుగమమం అవుతుంది. యూపీఎస్సీ తాజాగా ఎన్డీఏ ఎన్ఏ(I) -2020 నోటిఫికేషన్ విడుదల చేసింది. ఈ నేపథ్యంలో… అర్హతలు, ఎంపిక విధానం, రాత పరీక్ష, ప్రిపరేషన్ గెడైన్స్…
ఎన్డీఏ, ఎన్ఏ పరీక్షకు దేశవ్యాప్తంగా లక్షల్లోనే పోటీ. ఎంపిక విధానంలో రెండు దశలు ఉంటారుు. ప్రతి దశ ఎంతో కీలకం. మొదటి దశలో రాత పరీక్ష నిర్వహిస్తే.. రెండో దశలో ఎస్ఎస్బీ ఇంటర్వ్యూలు, మెడికల్ టెస్టులు ఉంటారుు. ఈ రెండు దశలకు కలిపి మొత్తం మార్కులు 1800 కేటారుుంచారు. వీటిలో రాత పరీక్షకు 900 మార్కులు, ఎస్ఎస్బీ టెస్ట్/ఇంటర్వ్యూకు 900 మార్కులు ఉంటారుు.
రాత పరీక్ష :రాత పరీక్షలో రెండు పేపర్లుంటారుు. పేపర్-1లో మ్యాథమెటిక్స్కు 300 మార్కులు (రెండున్నర గంటలు); పేపర్-2జనరల్ ఎబిలిటీ టెస్ట్కు 600 మార్కులు (రెండున్నర గంటలు) కేటారుుంచారు. ఈ రెండు పేపర్లలో మల్టిపుల్ చారుుస్ విధానంలో ప్రశ్నలుంటారుు. రుణాత్మక మార్కుల విధానం ఉంది. కాబట్టి కచ్చితంగా సమాధానాలు తెలిస్తేనే గుర్తించడం మేలు. ప్రశ్నపత్రం ఇంగ్లిష్, హిందీ మాధ్యమంలో ఉంటుంది. జనరల్ ఎబిలిటీ టెస్ట్లో పార్ట్-ఎ.. ఇంగ్లిష్ 200 మార్కులకు, పార్ట్-బిలో జనరల్ నాలెడ్జ్ 400 మార్కులకు జరుగుతుంది.
జనరల్ ఎబిలిటీ టెస్ట్ :
ఇంటర్వ్యూకు 900 మార్కులు :
పూర్తి వివరాలకు వెబ్సైట్: https://www.upsc.gov.in
ఇంటర్ అర్హతతోనే త్రివిధ దళాల్లో అధికారి కావాలనుకునేవారికి నేషనల్ డిఫెన్స అకాడెమీ(ఎన్డీఏ) సరైన వేదిక. చదువు, శిక్షణ, ఉద్యోగం మూడింటి మేలి కలయికే ఎన్డీఏ. శిక్షణతో పాటు డిగ్రీ ప్రదానం, రూ.45,000 జీతంతో కెరీర్ ఆరంభం కావడం ఎన్డీఏ విశిష్టతలు. పరీక్ష విధానం, ఎంపిక, శిక్షణ, కెరీర్గ్రాఫ్…వివరాలు చూద్దామా…
ఇంటర్ పూర్తికాగానే… చాలామంది ఎంసెట్… ఐఐటీ…ఏఐట్రిపుల్ఈ… గురించే ఆలోచిస్తారు. అలా కాకుండా ప్రత్యామ్నాయాన్ని కోరుకునేవారికి మేలిమి అవకాశం ఎన్డీఏ పరీక్ష. దీనిద్వారా ఆర్మీ, నేవీ, ఎయిర్ ఫోర్స్ల్లో ఎందులోనైనా ఆఫీసర్ హోదాతో చేరొచ్చు. అంతే కాదు మూడేళ్ల శిక్షణ పూర్తిచేసుకున్న తర్వాత జవహర్లాల్ నెహ్రూ యూని వర్సిటీ-న్యూఢిల్లీ నుంచి బ్యాచిలర్ డిగ్రీ పట్టా కూడా పుచ్చుకోవచ్చు.
ఎన్డీఏ: దేశ భద్రతను కాపాడే ఆర్మీ, నేవీ, ఎయిర్ఫోర్సకు చురుకైన సైనికులను అందించే లక్ష్యంతో మహారాష్ట్రలోని పుణెలో భారత ప్రభుత్వం ఆరు దశాబ్దాల క్రితం నేషనల్ డిఫెన్స అకాడెమీ (ఎన్డీఏ)ను ఏర్పాటుచేసింది. అప్పటి నుంచి ఎంతోమంది సుశిక్షుతులైన సైనికులను త్రివిధ దళాలకు అందిస్తూ వస్తోంది. రక్షణ దళాల్లో చేరేందుకు మేటి పరీక్షగా ఎన్డీఏ అండ్ ఎన్ఏకు మంచి పేరుంది. అందుకే ఈ పరీక్షను యూపీఎస్సీ నిర్వహిస్తోంది. భారత దేశంలో ఇంటర్మీడియట్ అర్హతతో నిర్వహించే చదువు, శిక్షణ, ఉద్యోగం మూడింటి సమ్మిళిత ఏకైక పరీక్ష ఇదే.
ఎంపిక ఇలా: మూడంచెల్లో ఎంపిక చేస్తారు.
స్టేజ్ 1: రాత పరీక్ష. ఇందులో మ్యాథమెటిక్స్ 300 మార్కులకు, జనరల్ ఎబిలిటీ టెస్ట్ 600 మార్కులకు ఉంటాయి.
స్టేజ్ 2: ఇంటర్వ్యూ(ఇంటెలిజెన్స్ అండ్ పర్సనాలిటీ టెస్ట్) 900 మార్కులు
స్టేజ్ 3: మెడికల్ ఎగ్జామినేషన్
రాత పరీక్ష: ఆబ్జెక్టివ్ పద్ధతిలో ఇంగ్లిష్ మాద్యమంలో ఉంటుంది. తప్పు సమాధానానికి మార్కుల్లో కోత. రాత పరీక్షలో ఉత్తీర్ణులకు ఇంటర్వ్యూలు నిర్వహిస్తారు. అందులో విజేతలుగా నిలిచినవాళ్లు వైద్య పరీక్షలకు వెళ్తారు. ఆ పరీక్షలో ఫిట్నెస్ ఓకే ఐన అభ్యర్థులు కోర్సుకు ఎంపికవుతారు.
అర్హతలివీ….ఆర్మీ వింగ్: ఏదైనా ఇంటర్ గ్రూప్తో పాస్
ఎయిర్ ఫోర్స్, నేవీ, నావల్ అకాడెమీ: మ్యాథ్స్, ఫిజిక్స్లతో ఇంటర్ ఉత్తీర్ణత
వ యోపరిమితి: 16బీ-19 ఏళ్లు
అవివాహిత పురుష అభ్యర్థులు మాత్రమే అర్హులు. నిర్దేశిత శారీరక ప్రమాణాలుండాలి.
ప్రకటన: ప్రతిఏటా మార్చ్, అక్టోబర్ల్లో
పరీక్ష: ఏప్రిల్, ఆగస్ట్ల్లో
రాష్ట్రంలో పరీక్ష కేంద్రాలు: హైదరాబాద్, విశాఖపట్నం, తిరుపతి
సిద్ధమవ్వండిలా….మ్యాథమెటిక్స్: 300 మార్కులకు రెండున్నరగంటల పాటు జరిగే మ్యాథమెటిక్స్ (పేపర్- 1)లో.. మంచి మార్కులకోసం సిలబస్లోని అన్ని అంశాలపైనా పట్టు సాధించాలి. ఎందుకంటే పరీక్షలో అన్ని విభాగాల నుంచీ ప్రశ్నలడుగుతున్నారు. ప్రశ్నలన్నీ కాన్సెప్ట్ బేస్డ్గానే ఉంటున్నాయి. ఫార్ములాస్పై పట్టుసాధిస్తే… పరీక్షలో సమయం వృథా కాకుండా ఎక్కువ ప్రశ్నలను రాసేందుకు వీలవుతుంది.
జనరల్ ఎబిలిటీ: 600 మార్కులకు రెండున్నర గంటల వ్యవధిలో ఈ పరీక్ష ఉంటుంది. ఇందులో పార్ట- ఏ,పార్ట-బీలు ఉంటాయి.
ఇంగ్లిష్: పార్ట ఏలో ఇంగ్లిష్ 200 మార్కులకు ఉంటుంది. ఇందులో అభ్యర్థికి ఇంగ్లిష్ భాషపై కనీస పరిజ్ఞానం ఉందో లేదో పరీక్షించేందుకు వీలుగానే ప్రశ్నలు అడుగుతారు. యూసేజ్, ఒక్యాబులరీ, రీడింగ్ కాంప్రహెన్షన్, కొహెషన్ నుంచి ప్రశ్నలు వస్తాయి. షార్టస్టోరీస్ చద వడం, పార్ట్స ఆఫ్ స్పీచ్, టెన్సెస్ నేర్చుకోవడం… కరక్షన్ ఆఫ్ సెంటెన్సెస్, యాంటొనిమ్స్, సిననిమ్స్కు సంబంధించిన ప్రశ్నలకు సులువుగానే సమాధానం రాయొచ్చు.
జనరల్ నాలెడ్జ: జనరల్ ఎబిలిటీ పేపర్లోని పార్ట-బి మొత్తం అభ్యర్థిలోని జనరల్ నాలెడ్జని పరీక్షించేందుకు ఉద్దేశించారు. దీనికి 400 మార్కులు కేటాయించారు. ఇందులో ఫిజిక్స్, కెమిస్ట్రీ, జనరల్ సైన్స, చరిత్ర, జాగ్రఫీ, కరెంట్ అఫర్స నుంచి ప్రశ్నలు వస్తాయి. ఇంటర్ ఎంపీసీ విద్యార్థులు ఈ పరీక్షను సులభంగానే ఎదుర్కోవచ్చు. ఆర్ట్స్ గ్రూప్ విద్యార్థులు మాత్రం మ్యాథ్స్, ఫిజిక్స్, కెమిస్ట్రీ అంశాల కోసం కసరత్తు చేస్తేనే సఫలీకృతం కాగలరు. కరెంట్ అఫైర్స్ కోసం సరిగ్గా పరీక్ష తేదీ నుంచి ఒక సంవత్సరం వెనుక వరకు ప్రపంచం, దేశంలో జరిగిన వివిధ పరిణామాలు తెలుసుకోవాలి.
శిక్షణ ఇలా…ఎంపికైన అభ్యర్థులకు పుణెలోని నేషనల్ డిఫెన్స్ అకాడెమీలో మూడేళ్ల డిగ్రీ చదువుతో పాటు శిక్షణ నిర్వహిస్తారు. ఎయిర్ ఫోర్స్, నేవీ, నావల్ అకాడెమీ కోర్సులకు ఎంపికైన వాళ్లు బీఎస్సీ (మ్యాథ్స్, ఫిజిక్స్, కంప్యూటర్ సైన్స్/కెమిస్ట్రీ) కోర్సుగా ఎంచుకోవచ్చు. ఆర్మీ గ్రూప్ కోర్సుకు ఎంపికైన వాళ్లు బీఏలో హిస్టరీ/జాగ్రఫీ/ఎకనామిక్స్/పొలిటికల్ సైన్స్ల్లో నచ్చిన మూడు ఆప్షన్లను చదవొచ్చు. వర్క్షాప్, ఏరియూ స్టడీ, మిలిటరీ హిస్టరీలను సిలబస్తోపాటు బోధిస్తారు. రక్షణ దళాల అవసరాలకు అనుగుణంగా శారీరక తర్ఫీదునిస్తారు. అన్ని విభాగాల వారికీ శిక్షణ ఒకే పద్ధతిలో ఉంటుంది. మూడేళ్ల కోర్సు పూర్తిచేసిన తర్వాత బీఏ/బీఎస్సీ పట్టాలు పొందొచ్చు.
మూడేళ్ల తర్వాత…ఆర్మీ క్యాడెట్లు డెహ్రాడూన్లోని ఇండియన్ మిలిటరీ అకాడెమీ (ఐఎంఏ)లో ఏడాదిపాటు ఆఫీసర్ శిక్షణ పొందుతారు. నేవల్ క్యాడెట్లకు ఏడాదిపాటు కేరళలో సముద్రంలో శిక్షణ నిర్వహిస్తారు. ఎయిర్ ఫోర్స్ క్యాడెట్లకు ఫ్లైయింగ్లో ఏడాదిన్నరపాటు ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్ అకాడెమీ-హైదరాబాద్లో శిక్షణ ఉంటుంది. సంబంధిత క్యాడెట్ శిక్షణలో నెలకు రూ. 21,000 స్టైపెండ్గా చెల్లిస్తారు.
కెరీర్ గ్రాఫ్: క్యాడెట్ శిక్షణ పూర్తి చేసుకున్న అభ్యర్థులకు ఆర్మీ, నేవీ, ఎయిర్ ఫోర్స్ మూడు దళాల్లోనూ వరుసగా… లెఫ్టినెంట్, సబ్ లెఫ్టినెంట్, ఫ్లైయింగ్ ఆఫీసర్ క్యాడర్తో ఆఫీసర్ స్థాయి కెరీర్ ప్రారంభమవుతుంది. పై మూడు విభాగాల్లోనూ చీఫ్ ఆఫ్ ఆర్మీ స్టాఫ్, అడ్మిరల్, ఎయిర్ చీఫ్ మార్షల్ విశిష్ట ఉద్యోగాలు. ఎన్డీఏ ద్వారా ఎంపికైనవాళ్లు అవకాశాన్ని బట్టి రక్షణ దళాల్లో సంబంధిత విభాగానికి భవిష్యత్తులో చీఫ్గా ఎంపిక కావచ్చు. ప్రారంభ కెరీర్కు, అత్యంత విశిష్ట ఉద్యోగానికి మధ్యలో 8 స్థాయిలుంటాయి. ఆర్మీ/నేవీ/ఎయిర్ ఫోర్స్ ఏ విభాగంలో కెరీర్ ఎంచుకున్నా వేతనాల్లో వ్యత్యాసాలుండవు. పూర్తికాలం సర్వీస్లో ఉన్న ప్రతి ఒక్కరూ తప్పకుండా సంబంధిత విభాగంలో మేజర్ జనరల్/రేర్ అడ్మిరల్/ ఎరుుర్ వైస్ మార్షల్ స్థారుుకి చేరుకుంటారు.
ఇవీ బెనిఫిట్స్: ఉచిత వసతి, సబ్సిడీ ధరలకు ఆహార సామగ్రి, పిల్లలకు ఉచిత విద్య, ఉచితంగా వైద్యం, సబ్సిడీ ధరలకు రైలు ప్రయాణం, ట్యాక్స్ ఫ్రీ క్యాంటీన్…లాంటి సౌకర్యాలెన్నో ఉన్నాయి. పదిహేనేళ్లు సర్వీస్ ఉంటే ఫుల్ పెన్షన్ పొందే అవకాశం కూడా ఉంది.
వీటిలో నెగ్గితేనే.. త్రివిధ దళాల్లో ‘ఆఫీసర్’ కొలువు ఖాయం
సరిహద్దుల్లో గస్తీ కాసే ఆర్మీ.. సముద్రాలను జల్లెడ పట్టే నేవీ.. ఆకాశంలో రక్షణ కవచాన్ని ఏర్పరిచే ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్.. ఈ మూడింటిని కలిపి త్రివిధ దళాలుగా పిలుస్తారు.
ఈ మూడు సాయుధ దళాల్లో పదోతరగతి, ఇంటర్, డిగ్రీ, డిప్లొమా, ఇంజనీరింగ్ అర్హతలతో ఉద్యోగాలను భర్తీ చేస్తున్నారు. ఈ నేపథ్యంలో.. రక్షణ దళాల్లో కొలువు, కెరీర్ కోరుకునే అభ్యర్థులకు ఉపయోగపడేలా ఆర్మీ, ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్, నేవీల్లో వివిధ ఉద్యోగాలు, నియామక విధానాలు, అర్హతలు, ఎంపిక ప్రక్రియపై సమగ్ర కథనం…
1. ఇండియన్ ఆర్మీ:
ఎన్డీఏ, ఎన్ఏ-(I),(II) :
డైరె క్ట్ ఎంట్రీ పర్మినెంట్ కమిషన్/షార్ట్ సర్వీస్ కమిషన్:
టెక్నికల్ గ్రాడ్యుయేట్ కోర్సు :
ఇండియన్ ఆర్మీ డెహ్రాడూన్లోని ఇండియన్ మిలిటరీ అకాడమీ టెక్నికల్ గ్రాడ్యుయేట్ కోర్సును అందిస్తోంది. అవివాహిత పురుష అభ్యర్థులు మాత్రమే దరఖాస్తుకు అర్హులు.
ఇంజనీరింగ్ డిగ్రీ ఉత్తీర్ణత. ఫైనలియర్ చదువుతున్న అభ్యర్థులు సైతం దరఖాస్తు చేసుకోవచ్చు. సదరు అభ్యర్థులు ఇంజనీరింగ్ ఉత్తీర్ణతకు సంబంధించిన ధ్రువపత్రాన్ని, కోర్సులో చేరిన 12 వారాల్లోపు అందించాల్సి ఉంటుంది.
టెక్నికల్ ఎంట్రీ స్కీమ్ (10+2) :
అర్హతలు: ఇంటర్ అర్హతతో ఆర్మీలో ప్రవేశించొచ్చు. ఇంటర్లో 70 శాతం మార్కులతో మ్యాథ్స్, ఫిజిక్స్, కెమిస్ట్రీ సబ్జెక్టులు చదివిన అభ్యర్థులు దీనికి అర్హులు. సంబంధిత విద్యార్హత కలిగిన అవివాహిత పురుషులు మాత్రమే అర్హులు. టెక్నికల్ ఎంట్రీ స్కీమ్(10+2) ద్వారా ఇంజనీరింగ్ పట్టాతోపాటు లెఫ్టినెంట్ హోదా లభిస్తుంది.
వయసు: 16 1/2 ఏళ్ల నుంచి 19 1/2 ఏళ్ల మధ్య ఉండాలి.
ఎంపిక: ఇంటర్ మార్కుల ఆధారంగా అభ్యర్థులను షార్ట్లిస్ట్ చేస్తారు. ఎంపికై నవారికి సర్వీస్ సెలక్షన్ బోర్డు(ఎస్ఎస్బీ) ఐదు రోజులపాటు రెండు దశల్లో సైకలాజికల్ పరీక్షలు, గ్రూప్ పరీక్షలు, ఇంటర్వ్యూలు నిర్వహిస్తుంది.
క్లర్క్, స్టోర్ కీపర్ ఉద్యోగాలు :
సోల్జర్ (నర్సింగ్ అసిస్టెంట్) :
2. ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్ :ఏఎఫ్క్యాట్ :
గ్రూప్ ఎక్స్, గ్రూప్ వై కొలువులు:
వయసు: నిర్దిష్ట తేదీ నాటికి 21 ఏళ్లకు మించరాదు.
3. ఇండియన్ నేవీ:
ఇంటర్వ్యూ కేంద్రాలు: బెంగళూరు, భోపాల్, కొయంబత్తూర్, విశాఖపట్నం, కోల్కతా.
విద్యార్హత: మొదటి శ్రేణిలో బీఈ/బీటెక్/ఎంబీఏ/ఎంసీఏ/ఎంఎస్సీ(ఐటీ) ఉత్తీర్ణత లేదా బీఎస్సీ /బీకామ్/బీఎస్సీ(ఐటీ)తోపాటు ఫైనాన్స్/లాజిస్టిక్స్/సప్లయ్ చైన్మేనేజ్మెంట్/ మెటీరియల్ మేనేజ్మెంట్లలో పీజీ డిప్లొమా ఉండాలి. శిక్షణ,అభివృద్ధి: ఎజిమలలోని ఇండియన్ నేవల్ అకడామీలో నేవల్ ఓరియెంటేషన్ కోర్సు; అనంతరం వివిధ నేవల్ శిక్షణా కేంద్రాలు, యూనిట్లు, షిప్ల్లో శిక్షణ ఉంటుంది. దీన్ని విజయవంతంగా పూర్తి చేసుకున్న వారికి నేవీలో సబ్ లెఫ్టినెంట్ హోదా లభిస్తుంది.
నేవల్ ఆర్మమెంట్ ఇన్స్పెక్షన్ ఆఫీసర్:విద్యార్హత: మెకానికల్/సివిల్/ఏరోనాటికల్/మెటలర్జీ/నేవల్ ఆర్కిటెక్చర్ స్పెషలైజేన్లతో బీఈ/బీటెక్ ఉత్తీర్ణత. 60శాతం మార్కులు తప్పనిసరి.
ఇన్ఫర్మేషన్ టెక్నాలజీ ఆఫీసర్:
ఎయిర్ ట్రాఫిక్ కంట్రోల్ ఆఫీసర్:
జడ్జ్ అడ్వకేట్/జ్యుడీషియల్ ఆఫీసర్:విద్యార్హత: న్యాయశాస్త్రంలో డిగ్రీ ఉత్తీర్ణత. అడ్వకేట్స్ యాక్ట్-1961కింది న్యాయవాదిగా నమోదై ఉండాలి.
ఫిజికల్ ట్రైనింగ్ ఆఫీసర్ :
ఇంజనీరింగ్ ఆఫీసర్ :
ఎడ్యుకేషన్ ఆఫీసర్ :
యూనివర్సిటీ ఎంట్రీ స్కీమ్(యూఈఎస్) :
సీనియర్ సెకండరీ రిక్రూట్మెంట్ (ఎస్ఎస్ఆర్) :
మెట్రిక్ రిక్రూట్ (ఎంఆర్): చెఫ్, స్టీవార్డ్, శానిటరీ హైజీనిస్ట్(ఎంఆర్).
త్రివిధ దళాలు.. ఆర్మీ, నేవీ, ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్.. వీటిలో కెరీర్ అంటే.. పురుషులకే అనే అభిప్రాయం! మహిళలు రాణించలేరనే అపోహ! మూడు విభాగాల్లో.. ఎందులో చూసినా.. పురుషులకే పెద్దపీట అనే అభిప్రాయం! కానీ.. ఇటీవల కాలంలో పరిస్థితి మారుతోంది.
త్రివిధ దళాల్లో మహిళలకు ప్రాధాన్యం లభిస్తోంది. తాజాగా సుప్రీంకోర్టు తీర్పు చెబుతూ.. త్రివిధ దళాల్లో చేరిన మహిళలకు పర్మనెంట్ కమిషన్ అవకాశం కల్పించాలని ఆదేశించింది. ఈ నేపథ్యంలో.. ఆర్మీ, నేవీ, ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్ విభాగాల్లో మహిళలకు అందుబాటులో ఉన్న కెరీర్ అవకాశాలు.. అవసరమైన అర్హతలు.. ఎంపిక విధానాల గురించి తెలుసుకుందాం…
త్రివిధ దళాలు..నిత్యం సరిహద్దుల్లో పహారా.. దేశ రక్షణలో భాగంగా అనుక్షణం అప్రమత్తతో, డేగ కళ్లతో శత్రువులపై నిఘా.. నిద్రాహారాలు మాని.. ప్రాణాలకు తెగించి.. ఉగ్రవాదులను మట్టుబెట్టడం..! ఇలా ఎంతో కఠినమైన విధులు నిర్వర్తించాల్సి ఉంటుంది. అందుకే.. సాయుధ దళాల్లో పురుషులు మాత్రమే రాణించగలరనే అభిప్రాయం ఎన్నో ఏళ్లుగా స్థిరపడిపోయింది. ఆడపిల్లలను ఇంతటి కఠినమైన కెరీర్ వైపు పంపడం ఎందుకు? అనే విముఖత తల్లిదండ్రుల్లో సైతం కనిపిస్తుంటుంది. కాని ఇటీవల కాలంలో పరిస్థితి మారుతోంది. త్రివిధ దళాల్లో మహిళల ప్రాతినిధ్యం పెరుగుతోంది. నియామకాల్లో మహిళలకు ప్రాధాన్యం లభిస్తోంది. తల్లిదండ్రుల ఆలోచనా ధోరణి సైతం మారుతోంది.
షార్ట్ సర్వీస్ కమిషన్ నుంచి పర్మనెంట్ కమిషన్ వరకు :
ఆ తర్వాత 2008లో జడ్జ్ అడ్వొకేట్ జనరల్(జేఏజీ), ఆర్మీ ఎడ్యుకేషన్ కార్ప్స్ విభాగాల్లో పర్మనెంట్ కమిషన్ ఏర్పాటు చేయాలని ప్రభుత్వం నిర్ణయించింది. తాజాగా సుప్రీంకోర్టు.. మహిళలకు త్రివిధ దళాల్లోని అన్ని విభాగాల్లో పర్మనెంట్ కమిషన్కు అవకాశం కల్పించాలని తీర్పు ఇచ్చింది. దీంతో సాయుధ దళాల్లో మహిళలు దీర్ఘ కాలం పని చేసే అవకాశం అందుబాటులోకి వచ్చింది.
ఆర్మీలో మహిళా ఆఫీసర్:
యూపీఎస్సీ- సీడీఎస్ఈ ద్వారా..యూనియన్ పబ్లిక్ సర్వీస్ కమిషన్(యూపీఎస్సీ) జాతీయ స్థాయిలో నిర్వహించే కంబైన్డ్ డిఫెన్స్ సర్వీసెస్ ఎగ్జామినేషన్(సీడీఎస్ఈ)లో ప్రతిభ ఆధారంగా ఆర్మీలో ఆఫీసర్స్ ట్రైనింగ్ అకాడమీలో.. ఎస్ఎస్సీడబ్ల్యులో(నాన్-టెక్నికల్) ప్రవేశం పొందొచ్చు. ఏటా రెండుసార్లు నిర్వహించే ఈ పరీక్షకు అర్హత ఏదైనా డిగ్రీ ఉత్తీర్ణత. నోటిఫికేషన్లో పేర్కొన్న కటాఫ్ తేదీ నాటికి 19ఏళ్ల నుంచి 25 ఏళ్ల మధ్యలో ఉన్న మహిళలు దరఖాస్తు చేసుకోవచ్చు. ఈ రాత పరీక్షలో ఉత్తీర్ణత సాధించిన వారికి తర్వాత దశలో ఎస్ఎస్బీ ఇంటర్వ్యూ నిర్వహించి ఉద్యోగం ఖరారు చేస్తారు.
ఆర్మీ.. నేరుగా :
ఎన్సీసీ స్పెషల్ ఎంట్రీ స్కీమ్ ఫర్ ఉమెన్ :
ఎస్ఎస్సీ డబ్ల్యు(జేఏజీ) :ఆర్మీలో నాన్-టెక్నికల్ విభాగంలో కీలకమైనదిగా ఎస్ఎస్సీడబ్ల్యు(జేఏజీ)ని పేర్కొనొచ్చు. కారణం.. ఇది ఆర్మీలో అంతర్గతంగా ఉండే న్యాయ విభాగానికి సంబంధించిన సర్వీస్. అందుకే దీన్ని జడ్జ్ అడ్వొకేట్ జనరల్గా పిలుస్తారు. ఏటా రెండుసార్లు(జూలై/ఆగస్ట్; జనవరి/ఫిబ్రవరి) నోటిఫికేషన్ వెలువడుతుంది.
గ్రాడ్యుయేట్ టెక్నికల్ ఎంట్రీస్-ఎస్ఎస్సీ (టెక్నికల్) ఉమెన్ :
అందరికీ ఓటీఏ-చెన్నైలో శిక్షణ :
మిలటరీ నర్సింగ్ సర్వీస్ :ఆర్మీలో మహిళా అభ్యర్థులకు అందుబాటులో ఉన్న మరో మార్గం.. మిలటరీ నర్సింగ్ సర్వీస్. బీఎస్సీ నర్సింగ్, ఎమ్మెస్సీ నర్సింగ్ ఉత్తీర్ణులు దరఖాస్తు చేసుకోవచ్చు. రాత పరీక్ష, ఇంటర్వ్యూ ఆధారంగా అభ్యర్థుల నియామకం ఖరారు చేస్తారు.
ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్లో పెలైట్గా:గగనతల గస్తీ విభాగంగా పేరొందిన ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్లోనూ ఇప్పుడు మహిళలకు అనేక అవకాశాలు ఉన్నాయి. ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్లో ఖాళీల భర్తీకి ఏఎఫ్క్యాట్(ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్ కామన్ అడ్మిషన్ టెస్ట్)ను నిర్వహిస్తారు. దీనిద్వారా ఫ్లయింగ్, గ్రౌండ్ డ్యూటీ(టెక్నికల్), గ్రౌండ్ డ్యూటీ(నాన్-టెక్నికల్) విభాగాల్లో ఖాళీలు భర్తీ చేస్తారు. ఎయిర్ ఫోర్స్లో మహిళలకు అందుబాటులో ఉన్న మరిన్ని అవకాశాలు..
ఫ్లయింగ్ బ్రాంచ్ :
గ్రౌండ్ డ్యూటీ-టెక్నికల్ :ఈ విధానంలో మహిళా అభ్యర్థులను షార్ట్ సర్వీస్ కమిషన్ ద్వారా ఎంపిక చేస్తారు. ఏరోనాటికల్ ఇంజనీరింగ్, ఎలక్ట్రానిక్స్ అండ్ ఏరోనాటికల్, మెకానికల్ ఇంజనీరింగ్ విభాగాల్లో మహిళలకు అవకాశం కల్పిస్తారు.
గ్రౌండ్ డ్యూటీ(నాన్-టెక్నికల్) :ఈ విధానంలో అడ్మినిస్ట్రేషన్, అకౌంట్స్, లాజిస్టిక్స్ విభాగాల్లో మహిళలను ఎంపిక చేస్తారు.
ఎన్సీసీ స్పెషల్ ఎంట్రీ స్కీమ్(ఫ్లయింగ్ బ్రాంచ్) :
గెజిటెడ్ ర్యాంకు :
ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్లో ఏఎఫ్క్యాట్ ద్వారా ఎంపికైన అభ్యర్థులకు గ్రూప్-ఎ గెజిటెడ్ హోదాతో కొలువు లభిస్తుంది. తాజా పరిణామాల నేపథ్యంలో షార్ట్ సర్వీస్ కమిషన్తో కెరీర్ ప్రారంభించిన వారికి సదరు వ్యవధి పూర్తి చేశాక.. పర్మనెంట్ కమిషన్కు పొడిగించుకునే అవకాశం కూడా ఉంది. ఏఎఫ్క్యాట్ ద్వారా ఆయా పోస్ట్లను భర్తీ చేసే క్రమంలో రెండంచెల ఎంపిక ప్రక్రియ ఉంటుంది. తొలుత 300 మార్కులకు స్క్రీనింగ్ టెస్ట్ను నిర్వహిస్తారు. ఇందులో విజయం సాధించి మెరిట్ జాబితాలో నిలిచిన అభ్యర్థులకు దేశ వ్యాప్తంగా ఉన్న మూడు(డెహ్రాడూన్, వారణాసి, గాంధీనగర్) ఎయిర్ఫోర్స్ సెలక్షన్ బోర్డ్స్లో తదుపరి దశలో ఎస్ఎస్బీ ఇంటర్వ్యూ ప్రక్రియ జరుగుతుంది. ఫ్లయింగ్ బ్రాంచ్ విజేతలకు మలి దశలో కంప్యూటరైజ్డ్ పైలట్ సెలక్షన్ సిస్టమ్(సీపీఎస్ఎస్) టెస్టు నిర్వహిస్తారు. వీటిలోనూ విజయం సాధించిన అభ్యర్థులకు చివరగా.. మెడికల్ టెస్టు ఉంటుంది. ఆ తర్వాత రాత పరీక్ష, మెడికల్ టెస్టులో మార్కుల ఆధారంగా తుది జాబితా రూపొందించి కొలువులు ఖరారు చేస్తారు. గ్రౌండ్ డ్యూటీ టెక్నికల్ బ్రాంచ్ అభ్యర్థులకు ఏఎఫ్క్యాట్తోపాటు మలి దశలో ఇంజనీరింగ్ నాలెడ్జ్ టెస్ట్ కూడా ఉంటుంది.
నావికా దళంలో.. నారీ భేరీ:
విభాగాలు.. అర్హతలు :
త్రివిధ దళాల్లో మహిళలు… ముఖ్యాంశాలు :